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Ch. 7

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

TermDefinition
ATP synthase (also, F1F0 ATP synthase) membrane-embedded protein complex that adds a phosphate to ADP with energy from protons diffusing through it
acetyl CoA combination of an acetyl group derived from pyruvic acid and coenzyme A, which is made from pantothenic acid (a B-group vitamin)
aerobic respiration process in which organisms convert energy in the presence of oxygen
anaerobic cellular respiration process in which organisms convert energy for their use in the absence of oxygen
anaerobic process that does not use oxygen
chemiosmosis process in which there is a production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cellular metabolism by the involvement of a proton gradient across a membrane
citric acid cycle (also, Krebs cycle) series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells
dephosphorylation removal of a phosphate group from a molecule
fermentation ess of regenerating NAD+ with either an inorganic or organic compound serving as the final electron accceptor, occurs in the absence; occurs in the absence of oxygen
GLUT protein integral membrane protein that transports glucose
glycolysis process of breaking glucose into two three-carbon molecules with the production of ATP and NADH
isomerase enzyme that converts a molecule into its isomer
Krebs cycle (also, citric acid cycle) alternate name for the citric acid cycle, named after Hans Krebs who first identified the steps in the pathway in the 1930s in pigeon flight muscles; see citric acid cycle
oxidative phosphorylation production of ATP using the process of chemiosmosis and oxygen
phosphorylation addition of a high-energy phosphate to a compound, usually a metabolic intermediate, a protein, or ADP
prosthetic group (also, prosthetic cofactor) molecule bound to a protein that facilitates the function of the protein
pyruvate three-carbon sugar that can be decarboxylated and oxidized to make acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle under aerobic conditions; the end product of glycolysis
redox reaction chemical reaction that consists of the coupling of an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction
substrate-level phosphorylation production of ATP from ADP using the excess energy from a chemical reaction and a phosphate group from a reactant
TCA cycle (also, citric acid cycle) alternate name for the citric acid cycle, named after the group name for citric acid, tricarboxylic acid (TCA); see citric acid cycle
ubiquinone soluble electron transporter in the electron transport chain that connects the first or second complex to the third
Created by: v_saldi