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Bio 12 Circulatory

Bio 12 Circulatory System Alex Rolston

Antibody Also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large protein produced by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses.
Antigen Any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. An antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment, such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or pollen.
Arterial Duct A fetal blood vessel that connects the left pulmonary artery with the descending aorta and that normally closes at birth.
Atrioventricular Valve These are the mitral and tricuspid valves, which are situated between the atria and the ventricles and prevent back flow from the ventricles into the atria during systole.
Autonomic Nervous System A control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response.
Atrioventricular (AV) Node Part of the electrical control system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart. It electrically connects atrial and ventricular chambers.
Blood Pressure The pressure of the blood in the circulatory system, often measured for diagnosis since it is closely related to the force and rate of the heartbeat and the diameter and elasticity of the arterial walls.
Blood Velocity The flow of blood in a vessel is related to velocity by the following equation: F = vA It is important to use the mean velocity of the moving blood because blood flowing in a vessel has a parabolic profile under laminar flow conditions.
Chordae Tendineae The chordae tendineae (tendinous chords), or heart strings, are cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve in the heart.
Diastolic Pressure The diastolic pressure is specifically the minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilatation of the ventricles of the heart when the ventricles fill with blood.
Fetal Circulation The fetal circulation is the circulatory system of a human fetus, often encompassing the entire fetoplacental circulation which includes the umbilical cord and the blood vessels within the placenta that carry fetal blood.
Heart Rate Heart rate, or heart pulse, is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of poundings of the heart per unit of time, typically beats per minute (bpm).
Hypotension Abnormally low blood pressure.
Hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure.
Lymph Node Each of a number of small swellings in the lymphatic system where lymph is filtered and lymphocytes are formed.
Lymphatic System The network of vessels through which lymph drains from the tissues into the blood.
Oval Opening The oval opening in the septum between the right and left atria of the fetal heart. A large oval opening in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, transmitting the mandibular nerve and a small meningeal artery.
Plasma The colourless fluid part of blood, lymph, or milk, in which corpuscles or fat globules are suspended.
Platelets A small colourless disk-shaped cell fragment without a nucleus, found in large numbers in blood and involved in clotting.
Pulmonary Circulation The movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart again. De-oxygenated blood leaves the heart, goes to the lungs, and then re-enters the heart; deoxygenated blood leaves through the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery.
Purkinje Fibres Purkinje fibers are a unique cardiac end-organ. Further histologic examination reveals that these fibers are split in atria and ventricles walls. The electrical origin of atrial Purkinje fibers arrives from the sinoatrial node.
Sinoatrial (SA) Node A small body of specialized muscle tissue in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that acts as a pacemaker by producing a contractile signal at regular intervals.
Semilunar Valve Each of a pair of valves in the heart, at the bases of the aorta and the pulmonary artery, consisting of three cusps or flaps that prevent the flow of blood back into the heart.
Septum A partition separating two chambers, such as that between the nostrils or the chambers of the heart.
Systemic Circulation Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
Systolic Pressure A measurement indicating the maximum arterial pressure occurring during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
Umbilical Artery The umbilical arteries supply the hind limbs with blood and nutrients in the fetus. The umbilical arteries surround the urinary bladder and then carry all the deoxygenated blood out of the fetus through the umbilical cord.
Umbilical Vein The umbilical vein is a vein present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus.
Venous Duct A fetal vein that passes through the liver to the inferior vena cava.
Created by: arolston