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Mammalogy

Subclass: Theria Infraclass: Eutheria

QuestionAnswer
Overall Characteristics of Subclass: Theria Infraclass: Eutheria Plantigrade; Dilambdodont/Tribosphenic Teeth; Small' Hearing, smell, touch, and some echolocation; Lack tympanic bulla; Reduce jugal; Small eyes
Order: Afrosonieida Family: Chrysochloridae Madagascar and West Africa; Diverse; Zalambdodont teeth; Heterothermic; Family: Gold Moles, South Africa, Fossorial small ears covered eyes, insectivores, leather snout,
Order: Erinaceidae Headgehogs and gymnures; Africa, Ruope, and Asia; Mouse to rabbit size; Complete zygomatic arch; Hedgehogs have spines;Insectivores and hibernators
Order: Soricomorphia Family: Solenodontidae Solenodons; Haiti, Dominican Republic, Cuba; Os probosidis in snout; Zalambdodont; i2 grooves with toxic saliva; Omnivores; Social multiple litters together; Low reproduction rate; Echolocation
Order: Soricomorphia Family: Soricidae Shrews; Largely and widely distributed; Imcomplete zygomatic arch and no tympanic bullae; Dilambdont; Insectivores; Long snout and no teeth; High metabolic rate and active day and night; High water loss; Echolocation
Order: Soricomorphia Family: Talpidae Moles, Shrews, Desmans; Broad distribution large diversity; 2/3rds fossorial; Moist soils; Active day and night; Fusiform body with small eyes and short legs with rotated forelimbs; Complete zygomatic arch
Order: Macroscelidea Family: Macroscelididae Elephant shrews; South Africa; Mouse to rabbit sized with springing locomotion and a large nose; complete auditory bullae and 2 rooted canine; Insectivores; nocturnal; solitary or small colonies
Order: Scandentia Family: Tupaiidae Pin tail shrew
Order: Scandentia Family: Ptilocercidae Tree shrews; First classified as primates because of a large brain case, scrotal testes, and a post orbital bar; Omnivorous; Semi-arboreal; Diurnal
Order: Dermoptera Family: Cynocephalidae Culugos; South East Asia and the Philippines; Squirrel size; Broad flat skull; Complete post-orbital process; Most extensive patgium from neck to tail for long high glides; Herbivores with comblike incisors; 2 ceacums; Days in dens and upside down
Order: Chiroptera Suborder: Megachiroptera Family: Pterpodidae Old world fruit bats, very big, No echolocation, tail, no hibernation
Order: Chiroptera Suborder: Microchiroptera Family: Philostomidae New world leaf nose bats, Western US and Northern South America, Large and diverse, Insectivores, carnivores, Vampire bats included
Order: Chiroptera Suborder: Microchiroptera Family: Vespertilionidae Largest family, Broad range, diverse, roosting, Solitary or not
Order: Primate Suborder: Strepsirhini Family: Daubentoniidae Aye-Aye, Madagascar, Insectivores, Probing third digit
Order: Primate Suborder: Strepsirhini Family: Lorisidae Loris, Pottos, and Angwantibos, Long legs and slow moving, Insectivores
Order: Primate Suborder: Strepsirhini Family: Galagidae Bush Baby, Leap and bounds, Africa
Order: Primate Suborder: Strepsirhini Family: Lemuridae Lemurs proper. Madagascar, Comoros Island, Arboreal or not. Frugivory or insectivory.
Order: Primate Suborder: Strepsirhini Family: Lepilemuridae Sportive lemurs, Nocturnal, Arboreal, Madagascar
Order: Primate Suborder: Strepsirhini Family: Cheirogaleidae Mouse lemurs, Smallest, frugivory and insectivory, Madagascar
Order: Primate Suborder: Strepsirhini Family: Indridae Indrids and Sifakas, Herbivores, MAdagascar
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Tarsiidae Tarsiers, Nocturnal, Indonesia and Philippines, Almost 180 rotation head, Elongated tarsal bones to leap up
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Cebidae Marmoset, Tamarins, Capuchins, and Squirrel Monkey; Central and South America
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Aotidae Night Monkey; Nocturnal; Central and South America
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Atelidae Howler, Spider, and Wooly Monkeys; Central and South America; Long, large, prehensile tails
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Pithecidae Saki, Uakaris, Bearded Saki; Central and South America
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Cercopithecidae Mandrills, Colobines, Probiscis; Africa, Asia, and Indonesia; Males and sometimes females have large canines; Brightly colored face, rump, and scrotums; Old World
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Hylobatidae Gibbons and Siamangs; South East Asia, China, and Indonesia; Arms are longer than legs; Tree movement in swinging motions; Old World
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Hominidae Gorillas, Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Humans; Equatorial Africa, Sumatra, and Borneo; Largest primates; No tails, Long development, sexual dimorphism, complex social
Order: Primate Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Hominidae Homo sapiens Bipedalism, large brain and braincase, lighter skeleton, less size dimorphism, emerged 200,000 years ago
Order: Cingulata Armadillos and extinct ground sloth; low metabolic rate and body temperature; North and South America; Dermal carapace bone; no incisors or canines
Order: Cingulata Family: Dasypodidae Armadillos; Leprosy; Carapace made up scrutes; Delayed implantation up to two years; Identical quadruplets;
Order: Pilosa Sloths; Central and South America
Order: Pilosa Family: Bradypodidae Three toed sloth; 8-9 cervical vertebrae; folivorous
Order: Pilosa Family: Megalonychidae Two toed sloth; Central and South America; 5,6, 8 Cervical vertebrae; Folivorous
Order: Pilosa Family: Cyclopedidae Silky Anteater; Central and South America;
Order: Pilosa Family: Myrmecophagidae Anteaters; Adentate; Myrmecophagus; Long tapered skull with a 600 mm tongue attached to sternum
Order: Pholidota Family: Manidae Pangolins; Scales on everything but face and limbs; Africa and Asia; Closed ears and nostrils when feeding on ants; Tongue is longer than head and body and rooted to pelvis; Anal glands; Edentate and sticky saliva; Defensive ball
Order: Tubulidentata Family: Orycteropodidae Aardvark; Great smell, good burrowers; Incisors and canines only in fetal; Cheek teeth have pulp tubules surrounded by triangular dentine
Order: Carnivora Defined by carnassial; Large, cone canines; Heavy face muscles and deep mandibular fossa; Digitigrade and plantigrade; Most five digits; Absent or reduced clavicle; Baculum in most; Anal glands; Dimorphism
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae World Wide but not in Australia, Madagascar, or Antarctica; eight in North America and Neotropical; Most solitary; Short rostrum, large orbits, Good carnassials; Rotate paws; Retractable claws
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Herpestidae Mongoose; Old world but human introduced to Hawaii and the Caribbeans; Insectivores; Long postorbital process; Five toes; Anal scent glands making carboxylic acid; Half social with diurnal clans; Use tools
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Eupleridae Malagasy Mongoose; Madagascar
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Viverridae Civets and Genets; Old world tropics and temperates; Most carnivores; Semiarboreal; Nocturnal; Diverse; Retractable claws
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Nandiniidae African Palm Civet; Central Africa; Herbivore; Arboreal; Nocturnal; Forest dwelling
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Hyaenidae Hyenas; Old World in Turkey, Middle East, and India; Carrion feeders; Heavy build with forelimbs higher than hindlimbs; four toes; Dimorphism; Female clitoris and vulva look like male genetalia; Aardwolf with termites and weak dentition
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia Family: Canidae Dogs and wolves; World wide with dingos human introduced in Australia long ago; Arctic to tropic; Long rostrum, well developed teeth, post-carnassial teeth allow for more diet options; Lanky, good runners; Diverse diets and hunting strategies
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia Family: Mustelidae Weasels and badger; Not Madagascar or Australia; Least Weasel is smallest with Wolverine being biggest; Hunt prey bigger than them; Ovulation after copulation, delayed implantation in some (Fischers, 11 mo; Least Weasel, none)
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia Family: Mephitidae Skunks and stink badgers; Indonesia and Western Hemisphere; Warning coloration (aposematic); Well developed scent glands; Omnivorous and nocturnal
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia Family: Procyonidae Raccoons, Ringtails, Coatis, and Olingos; New World, Western Hemisphere, temperate and tropical; Omnivory (Raccoons) and Frugivory (Kinkajous), semi retractable claws, good climbers (Prehensile tail, Kinkajous), dexterous front feet
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia Family: Ursidae Bears; North America, Eurasia, South East Asia, Malaysia, South America, North East Africa; Northern species and carnivorian lethargy; Omnivorous (Polar Bears are carnivorous, Pandas are herbivorous) and varies seasonally
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia Family: Ailuridae Red Pandas; Himalayas; Folivorous and vulnerable status
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia (Pinnipedia) Small or absent pinnae and tail, no clavical, pelvis reduced, Fusiform bodies, closing nostrils, Partial telescope skulls; Diving with large lungs, cartilaginous respiratory tract, large blood volume, restrictive blood supply to nonessential things
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia (Pinnipedia) Family: Odobenidae Walrus; Arctic waters in Atlantic and Pacific; No external ears; Nearly hairless; Tail beneath body for land movement; Open rooted tusks in both sexes; Males 4x bigger than girls; Vocal and gregarious
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia (Pinnipedia) Family: Otariidae Eared seal and sea lions; Coastal pacific and parts of south atlantic and Indian; Hind flipper beneath them; External ears; Nails on three back toes; Fur on body; Vocal and gregarious
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia (Pinnipedia) Family: Phocidae Earless seals; Above 30 and below 50; No external ear; No hind tail beneath him; Monogamous; Deepest Divers
Order: Cetacea Fusiform bodies, front flippers for stablization, legs reduced, little body hair, Telescope skulls; Blubber, counter current exchange for flippers; Rigid bones, cartilaginous respiratory track, high hematocin and myoglobin, bradycardia
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti No echolocation; Paired nares external to eye; Symmetrical skull; Baleen
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti Family: Balaenidae Bowhead and Right Whales
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti Family: Neobalaenidae Pygmy Right Whales; Monotypic
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti Family: Balaenopteridae Rorquals and Tube Throated Whales; Includes Blue Whales, largest mammal ever; Humpback whales blow bubble nets to collect prey
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti Family: Eschrichtiidae Grey Whales; Monotypic
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti Homodont dentition; Echolocation; Single nares posterior to eye; Asymmetrical skull; Oil filled melon for making sound and oil filled sinus to receive sound
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Delphinidae Dolphins
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Phocoenidae Porpoises; Small, blunt rostrum
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Platanistidae River Dolphins; Fresh water
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Iniidae River Dolphin;
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Monodontidae Narwhals and Belugas; Narwhal with a social and fighting tusk
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Ziphiidae Beaked Whales
Order: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Physetcridae Sperm Whale; Sperm whale with a huge oil filled head
Order: Rodentia 42%; Enamel on front, dentine on back so chisel shape; Classified by Masseter not through infraorbital (sciuromorph), somewhat through (Myo-), Large through (histrico), Attached to arch (Protro-) and process not in plane (Hystrico) or in plane (sciuro)
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Anomaluromorpha Scaly tailed squirrel and spring hare
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Castorimorpha Family:Castoridae Beavers; Castor canadensis (US) and Castor fiber (Europe and Asia); Summer eat aquatic, winter eat bark; burrows or lodges; Ecosystem engineers; Epiglottis before soft palette to swim and breathe with stuff in mouth;
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Castorimorpha Family: Geomyidae Pocket gophers; Western Hemisphere Canada to Columbia; Fossorial in North America; Kneeled sternum; Fur lined cheek pouches; Lips behind incisors; Ecological influence on soil
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Castorimorpha Family: Heteromyidae Kangaroo rats and mice; New world desserts and tropics; Fur lined cheek pouches; burrows; Arid species conserve water for long periods
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Myomorpha Family: Muridae Old world rats and mice; World wide; 66% of rodentia; Commensal with humans; 12-16 teeth
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Myomorpha Family: Cricetidae New world rats and mice; North America, South America, Europe, and most of Asia; Diverse in diet
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Hystricomorpha Family: Erethicontidae New world porcupine; North America, Central America, and Northern South America; Nocturnal, solitary or paired; 7 month gestation and 1 young a year; Eat plywood; Raise up quills and fight during mating season; FIschers are predators; scream like felidae
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Hystricomorpha Family: Myocastoridae Nutria; South America and into North America and Europe for fur; Damage crops and wetlands
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha Family: Aplodontidae Mountain Beavers; California and Pacific North West; Primitive kidneys; Fossils to Paleocene; No tail and flat skulls; Colonial, burrows with multiple exits
Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha Family: Sciuroidae Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots; Not Austraila, Madagascar, Polar, South South America, or some desserts; true hibernators; Tree squirrels with long tail and big ears; Ground squirrels with short tail and limbs; Flying squirrels
Order: Lagomorpha Not in South South America, New Zealand, Australia; Rodent dentation but long diastema; 2nd peg-like incisors behind 1st pair; Lattice skull; Furred feet
Order: Lagomorpha Family: Ochotonidae Pika;Territorial and social; Forest species have burrows, very social, and higher populations; Apline species have no burrow, are asocial, and lower density; Vocal
Order: Lagomorpha Family: Leporidae Rabbits and hares; Rabbits have fur nests, altricial young, 21 chromosomes; Hares no nests, precocial young, 24 chromosome; High reproduction; 8-13 population cycles
Subungulates From Condylarthra order in Paleocene era; No clavicle, bicornuate uterus; Nonruminating hindgut
Subungulate Order: Proboscidea Family: Elephantidae African 21 ribs, two trunk lips, concave back, and bigger ears; Asian with straight back, 19 ribs, and one trunk lip; Grow continuously; Graviportal locomotion so column limbs directly under body; Pneumonic skull; Large, matriarcl groups; 22 mo. gestation
Subungulate Order: Hyracoidae Family: Procouiidae Hyraxes; Rocks and yellow spotted are diurnal in colonies, vocal; Tree are nocturnal and solitary; Small intestine, huge ceacum, large intestine, paired ceacum, colon; Suction secretions in feet; bad thermoregulation
Subungulate Order: Sirenia Poor thermoregulation; All threatened
Subungulate Order: Sirenia Family: Dugongidae Dugongs and Stellar Sea Cows (extinction); Small groups or solitaries; 12 month gestation, 1 young, and tusk like incisors in incisors
Subungulates Order: Sirenia Family: Trichechidae West Indy Manatees in only salt water, Amazon Manatees in fresh water only, West African in both fresh and salt; 6 cervical vertebrae; Only molars; 13 month gestation
Ungulates Order: Perissodactyla Family: Equidae Horses, zebras, and Donkeys; high crown, no female canines; 1 digit; Polygynous; 12 month gestation and one young; Zebras three species; Horses fossil record native to North America; Wild threatened or endangered
Ungulates Order: Perissodactyla Family: Tapiridae Tapirs; Flexible probiscus; 4 digits in front and 3 in back; Heavy body and short legs with small eyes and ears
Ungulates Order: Perissodactyla Family: Rhinocerotidae Rhino; 3 digits; 1 or 2 horns of fused keratin;Large, stout body with graviportal limbs; Small eyes and flexible lips; All endangered with illegal harvest
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Suiformes Family: Suidae Pigs and warthogs; Sparse fur and thick skin; Simple stomach; continuous growing canines with tusks for upper canines
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Suiformes Family: Tayassuidae Peccaries; Gregarious
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Suiformes Family: Hippopotamidae Hippo and pygmy hippo; Gregarious, amphibious; Sunblock secreting glands; Tusk canines before incisors
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Tylopoda Family: Camelidae Camel, Vicunas, guanacos; Cleft lip; 3 chamber stomach; Fat in hump; Water conserved for months, daily body temp flux, dehydration tolerable; Dromedary with 1 hump and bactrian with 2
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Ruminantia Head Ornamentation Giraffes with bone that fuse to skull; Deer antlers on pedicels grow fast and drop off seasonally; Bovid true horns with bone center but not in females without shedding; Pronghorns with born cores but in both sexes and shed caps
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Ruminantia Family: Tragulidae Cheurotains, Mouse deer; Smallest ungulates; No surface glands; 3 chamber stomachs; Curved, large canines
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Ruminantia Family: Giraffidae Giraffe and Okapi; Short bony horns with hairy skin covering; Strange pelage; HIgh predation in young
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Ruminantia Family: Cervidae Deer and relatives; Sex dimorphism; Gregarious; Young is well camouflage; Glands for communication
Ungulates Order: Artiodactlya SubOrder: Ruminantia Family: Antiocapridae Pronghorn; Fastest mammals in north america; Black spot on jaws of males; defend terretory in spring to fall; Population low in 1900's but now recovered
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Ruminantia Family: Bovidae Cow, sheep, goat, and antelope;
Ungulates Order: Artiodactyla SubOrder: Ruminantia Family: Moschidae Musk deer; No antlers, but males have large canines; Musk glands
Created by: LionsandGiants