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BIO 12-MOD1/1.2B

Lesson 1.2B Vocabulary Words

TermDefinition
Dehydration Synthesis a common process that joins monomers to build polymers; an -OH group (hydroxyl group) and an -H group (hydrogen atom) are removed as the reaction proceeds; as the monomers join, a water molecule is produced
Hydrolysis reaction in which the cell degrades macromolecules by adding water molecules
Monosaccharide molecules such as glucose and fructose, which are single sugars; each has a similar chemical formula of C6H12O6
Disaccharide (di, two; saccharide, sugar) composed of double sugars; dehydration synthesis is the process that joins two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide
Cellular energy Plants produce energy from light through a process known as photosynthesis. Eukaryotic cells use their mitochondria to generate ATP through a process called cell respiration
Carbohydrate made primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1; the empirical or simplest formula for any carbohydrate is (CH2O)n
Hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6
Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism.
Starch is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store.
glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body.
Inorganic molecules non-living molecules that do not contain carbon-hydrogen bonds, such as salt (NaCl)
organic molecules always contain carbon and hydrogen
dehydration synthesis a common process that joins monomers to build polymers; an -OH group (hydroxyl group) and an -H group (hydrogen atom) are removed as the reaction proceeds; as the monomers join, a water molecule is produced
macromolecules many molecules joined together
polymer a macromolecule created by the dehydration reaction of monomers
polysaccharides are long chain molecules that contain many glucose subunits
hydrolysis reaction reaction in which the cell degrades macromolecules by adding water molecules
Created by: WOOLGIRL