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BIO 12-MOD1/SEC1.2


acids compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
bases molecules that either release hydroxide ions (OH-) or take up hydrogen ions (H+); bases have a pH greater than 7
buffer a compound or combination of compounds (often a weak acid or base and a related salt) that keeps the pH of a solution within its normal limits
hemoglobin An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen
hydrogen bonding weak bond that arises between a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another molecule or between parts of the same molecule
hydrophilic water-loving molecules that are polar in nature
hydrophobic water-phobic molecules that are non-polar
lubricant A fluid used to reduce friction by creating a thin layer between microscopic "hills and valleys" of a surface.
pH relative strength of an acid
polarity Any separation of charge into distinct positive and negative regions.
solvent liquid component of a solution
temperature regulator Water acts as this by using its numerous hydrogen bonds to resist temperature changes, also evaporation of sweat helps cool the human body.
amino acids has a central carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and three groups that include an amino group (–NH2), an acidic group (–COOH), and an R group, so named because it is the remainder of the molecule
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (ATP) high-energy molecules used by the cell to synthesize macromolecules, such as carbohydrates and proteins
Dehydration Synthesis a common process that joins monomers to build polymers; an -OH group (hydroxyl group) and an -H group (hydrogen atom) are removed as the reaction proceeds; as the monomers join, a water molecule is produced
lipids include steroids, such as the sex hormones and cholesterol, fats and oils, which act as energy storage molecules in organisms, ______ are unable to dissolve in water because they are neutral (non-polar)
enzyme a biological catalyst that speeds up the chemical reactions that occur in the body; does this by lowering the activation energy required for each chemical reaction
hormones a chemical messenger that travels through the body and influences cell functions, such as metabolism, growth and development, and homeostasis
peptide bond (C-N) covalent bonds that join two amino acids
plasma the liquid portion of the blood; mainly consists of water; 7% to 8% of plasma consists of proteins
primary proteins a linear sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bonds (C-N) that formed by dehydration synthesis
primary structure it is the exact specification of its atomic composition and the chemical bonds connecting those atoms (including stereochemistry)
proteins polymers with amino acid monomers; include all antibodies, enzymes, most hormones, and much of structural support in the tissues of our bodies; structure consists of polymers made from the twenty different amino acids found in cells
quaternary structure it s the arrangement of multiple folded protein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex
quaternary proteins made of two or more tertiary proteins joined together
R-group Amino acids have a central carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and three groups that include an amino group (–NH2), and acidic group (–COOH), and an R group. The R group is so named because it makes up the remainder of the molecule.
secondary proteins looks like a primary protein coiled into a slinky
tertiary structure
tertiary proteins a three-dimensional structure created by a secondary protein that has folded back upon itself
Monosaccharide molecules such as glucose and fructose, which are single sugars; each has a similar chemical formula of C6H12O6
Cellular energy
Carbohydrate made primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1; the empirical or simplest formula for any carbohydrate is (CH2O)n
Disaccharide (di, two; saccharide, sugar) composed of double sugars; dehydration synthesis is the process that joins two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide
Hydrolysis reaction in which the cell degrades macromolecules by adding water molecules
neutral fats another term for triglycerides (fats and oils) but the neutral means the molecule is non-polar or neutral
phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers.
saturated fatty acids solid at room temperature (e.g., lard and butter); they have the maximum number of hydrogens on the fatty acid chains
steroids has a backbone of four fused carbon rings, each one differing primarily by the functional group attached to it, and by the arrangements if the rings; hormones such as estrogen, aldosterone, and testosterone are steroids
triglycerides triglycerides are made of one glycerol and three fatty acid molecules; the fatty acids are long chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached, and end with the acidic group COOH
unsaturated fatty acids liquids at room temperature (e.g., olive and peanut oils); these molecules have double bonds between any two carbon atoms that have less than two hydrogens attached to them
complementary base pairing
cytosine (C)
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses
double helix describes the appearance of a DNA molecule
guanine (G)
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
nitrogenous base
nucleic acids there are two types of nucleic acids; DNA and RNA; both are polymers of nucleotides
nucleotide composed of three main parts: a phosphate group (phosphoric acid), a pentose sugar (DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose and RNA contains the sugar ribose), and a nitrogen-containing base
thymine (T)
uracil (U)
Created by: WOOLGIRL