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Biochemistry Vocab

Biochemistry Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Activation Energy the minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.
Active Site a small port in an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Amino Acid Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds composed of amine and carboxylic acid functional groups, along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.
Cellular Respiration the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Carbohydrate any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
Denature destroy the characteristic properties of (a protein or other biological macromolecule) by heat, acidity, or other effects that disrupt its molecular conformation.
Dehydration Synthesis A chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules.
Enzyme a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
Fatty Acid an acid that is naturally in fats and various oils.
Glycerol a sweet syrupy hygroscopic trihydroxy alcohol C3H8O3 usually obtained by the saponification of fats.
Glucose a type of sugar that is found in plants and fruits
Hydrolysis a chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water
Inorganic made from or containing material that does not come from plants or animals
Lipid any one of various substances that contain fat and that are important parts of living cells
Monosaccharide a sugar that is not decomposable into simpler sugars by hydrolysis.
Nucleic Acid any of various acids (such as DNA or RNA) that are found in living cells
Nitrogen Base a nitrogen-containing molecule with basic properties; especially : one that is a purine or pyrimidine
Optimal Conditions The most favorable condition for growth and reproduction.
Organic of, relating to, or derived from living matter
Photosynthesis The creation of food and energy by plants using light, Co2, and O2
Phosphate an organic compound of phosphoric acid in which the acid group is bound to nitrogen or a carboxyl group in a way that permits useful energy to be released (as in metabolism)
Protein any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids
pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution
Respiration a process in living organisms involving the production of energy, typically with the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide from the oxidation of complex organic substances
Substrate the substance on which an enzyme acts.
Testing Regent
Water a colorless, transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid that forms the seas, lakes, rivers, and rain and is the basis of the fluids of living organisms.