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Energy & Enzymes

vocab associated with ATP, energy, enzymes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration

1st law of thermodynamics energy is not created or destroyed - it changes in form
OAA Acetyl CoA is added to this to begin Kreb cycle
RuBP carbon dioxide is attached to this during carbon fixation
ACE (Aald) pyruvate is first changed to this during fermentation
Acetyl CoA complex that enters Kreb cycle - adds to 4-C starting material
Acetyl group formed in Intermediate Reaction - carried to Kreb cycle by Coenzyme A
activation energy type of energy needed to begin chemical reactions
active site portion of an enzyme that fits substrate exactly
ADP + Pi products of ATP hydrolysis - can be used to re-make ATP
-ase suffix that identifies substances as an enzyme
ATP energy currency of living cells
ATP synthase enzyme that acts to build ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate
autotroph organism that stores energy by making its own food
Calvin cycle last stage/step of photosynthesis - where glucose is made from PGAL
carbon fixation process used by plants to take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere
catalyst substance that increases the rate of reactions without being used up
chemical reaction occurs to produce new substances with unique properties
chloroplast organelle that autotrophs use to absorb light energy and produce glucose
carbon dioxide atmospheric gas that plants bring in to make glucose
coenzyme molecule that modifies an enzyme's shape OR carries atoms/parts of atoms
Coenzyme A specific molecule that carries acetyl group to Kreb cycle
cytoplasm where fermentation and glycolysis occurs
Electron Transport Chain used in PS II, PS I and the last step of aerobic cellular respiration
endergonic type of reaction that absorbs more free energy than it releases
enzyme 3-D protein molecule used as a catalyst in cellular reactions
ethyl alcohol one of the waste products of fermentation (in bacteria or yeast cells)
exergonic reaction that gives off more free energy than it takes in
FAD coenzyme used only in Kreb cycle - carries 2 high-energy electrons
free energy energy that is available for use in living systems or chemical reactions
glucose fuel for cellular respiration - final product of photosynthesis
heterotroph organism that must bring in food from other sources for its energy
high-energy electron negatively charged atomic particle - located further from the nucleus than normal
Hydrogen proton an atom of Hydrogen that has been stripped of its electron
inner conpartment / matrix location in the mitochondria where Krebs cycle takes place
kinetic energy also known as the energy of motion - it's doing something
lactic acid waste product of anaerobic respiration in animal cells
lock & key hypothesis the idea that an enzyme's active site must fit the substrate exactly
mitochondria organelle responsible for final 3 steps/stages of oxidative respiration
NAD coenzyme utilized in all four steps/stages of aerobic cellular respiration
NADP coenzyme used in both PS I and Calvin cycle of photosynthesis
NADP reductase enzyme used by plants to add high-energy electrons to coenzyme
outer comparment space in the mitochondria that is more acidic due to hydrogen ion concentration
oxygen waste product of photosynthesis - necessary for aerobic respiration
PGAL formed in Calvin cycle - used to make glucose, starch, fats, proteins, etc.
photons discrete packets of light energy absorbed by chlorophyll
Photosystem I step of photosynthesis that produces NADPH for use in the Calvin cycle
Photosystem II stage of photosynthesis that produces ATP
potential energy also known as the energy of position - stored energy
products results of a chemical reaction (on the right side of the arrow)
proton pumps proteins that actively transport protons across a membrane
pyruvate end product of glycolysis that is sent to Intermediate reaction
reactants materials that go into a chemical reaction (left side of the arrow)
stroma cytoplasm type material within a chloroplast
substrate molecule that fits exactly into the 3-D active site of an enzyme
thylakoid membrane surface inside a chloroplast that contains chlorophyll and ETC
water waste product of aerobic cellular respiration - formed in the last step/stage
Created by: nstevens
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