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IB 302

Coreceptor inhibitors Bar HIV from entering host cells by preventing them from latching onto the host cells CCR5 molecules.
Fusion inhibitors Bar HIV from entering host cells by interfering with HIV’s gp120 or gp41 proteins.
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors Inhibit reverse transcriptase by mimicking the normal building blocks of DNA (AZT). Others inhibit reverse transcriptase by interfering with the enzyme’s active site.
Integrase inhibitors Block HIV’s integrase from inserting HIV’s DNA into the host genome, preventing the transcription of new viral RNAs.
Protease inhibitors Prevent HIV’s protease enzyme from cleaving viral precursor proteins to produce mature components for new virions.
Phylogeny Shows the relationships among a group of viruses or organisms
CD4 A glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells.
CD4+ T cells Mature T cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers fall, HIV becomes AIDS.
CCR5 Is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.
Coreceptor A co-receptor is a cell surface receptor that binds a signalling molecule in addition to a primary receptor in order to facilitate ligand recognition and initiate biological processes, such as entry of a pathogen into a host cell.
Reverse Transcriptase A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription. It is mainly associated with retrovirusses.
Integrase An enzyme produced by a retrovirus that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.
Virion Virus particles consisting of two or three parts.
T-cell A type of white blood cell that is of key importance to the immune system and is at the core of adaptive immunity, the system that tailors the body's immune response to specific pathogens.
B cell A type of white blood cell and, specifically, a type of lymphocyte. Many B cells mature into what are called plasma cells that produce antibodies (proteins) necessary to fight off infections while other B cells mature into memory B cells.
Retrovirus See Study Guide.
Virulence The ability of an agent of infection to produce disease. The virulence of a microorganism is a measure of the severity of the disease it causes.
Phylogenetic tree (or a phylogeny) A diagram showing the history of divergence and evolutionary change leading from a single ancestral lineage to a suite of descendants.
Apomorphy (separate form) An evolutionary novelty, or derived character.
Plesiomorphy (near form) A preexisting, or ancestral character.
Synapomorphy (similarly separate form) A derived character shared by two or more lineages, such as the masks shared by three lineages within the set of four extant bird species.
Monophyletic group (also known as a clade) Consists of an ancestor and all of its descendants.
Paraphyletic A group consisting of an ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants
Polyphyletic A group that contains some, but not all, of an ancestors descendants, and that also excludes the ancestor.
Parsimony Analysis Prefers the hypothesis that requires the fewest evolutionary changes in the characters of interest (see Felsenstein 2004).
Homoplasy The independent appearance of a character’s state in more than one place on a phylogeny. Similarity in character states due to convergence and/or reversal.
Convergent Evolution The independent appearance in different lineages of similar derived characters.
Reversal The loss of derived traits in a lineage, resulting in a return to the ancestral condition.
Premutations DNA alterations still susceptible to repair.
Synonymous (or silent) Substitution Mutation that leaves the encoded protein unaltered.
Nonsynonymous (or replacement) Substitution A mutation that changes the amino specified by a codon. Switching an amino acid may alter the function of a protein.
Nonsense Mutation A mutation that introduces a premature stop codon. Nonsense mutations often render the encoded protein nonfunctional.
Linkage The tendency for alleles of different genes to assort together at meiosis.
Polymorphic Chromosomes with and without the inversions exist.
Cline Consist of ecotypes or forms of species that exhibit gradual phenotypic and/or genetic differences over a geographical area.
Sampling Error Random discrepancy between theoretical expectations and actual results.
Genetic Drift Sampling error in the production of zygotes from a gene pool
Founder Effect See Study Guide.
Heterozygosity The frequency of heterozygotes in a population.
Neutral Theory Holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by random drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.
Negative Selection Natural selection against deleterious mutations.If most of these alterations are deleterious, then most of them should be eliminated by natural selection without ever becoming common enough to be detected.
Positive Selection Natural selection favoring beneficial mutations.
Polymorphism A locus at which different individuals in a population carry different alleles.
Codon Bias Suggests that some synonymous mutations are not selectively neutral.
Hitchhiking (or a selective sweep) Another phenomenon that affects the rate and pattern of change at silent sites. Hitchhiking can occur when strong positive selection acts on a particular amino acid change.
Coalescence The merging of genealogical lineages as we trace allele copies backward in time.
Inbreeding Mating among genetic relatives. The most common type of nonrandom mating. The effect of inbreeding on the genetics of a population is to increase the frequency of homozygotes compared to what is expected under Hardy-Weinberg assumptions.
Coefficient of Inbreeding F is the symbol for the coefficient of inbreeding, a way of gauging how close two people are genetically to one another. The coefficient of inbreeding, F, is the probability that a person with two identical genes received both genes from one ancestor.
Migration In its evolutionary meaning, is the movement of alleles from one population to another.
Fossil Any trace of an organism that lived in the past. The worldwide collection of fossils is called the fossil record.
Law of Succession The general pattern of correspondence between fossil and living forms from the same locale
Homology Literally, the study of likeness
Created by: 1387636308