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2015-Pathology Def.

Pathology Terminolog

Pathology Study of Disease & Disease Process
Myriad Nox ious Agents Causes disease
Disease is caused by Damage to Cellular and Tissue injury the membrane or Enzymes
Damage to the Membrane or enzymes create Lesions
Cells need Nutrients Oxygen Protection from toxins
Clinical pathology Damaged cells release certain products that can be seen in lab tests
Somatic Death Disappearance of Life from individual
Necrosis Local Death of Tissue in LIVING ANIMAL
Anoxia lack of Oxygen
Post Mortem Changes-Def Changes that occur after death
4 PM changes 1) Cooling 2) Rigor Mortis 3) Blood changes 4) PM Degeneration
1) Cooling Rate of cooling of the body -Initial -Insulation -Environment
2) Rigor Mortis Stiffening of muscles 1-9 HOURS after death -Contraction of Muscle fibers due to energy supply decrease
3) Blood Changes a) Pool due to gravity b) Clot
4) PM Degeneration Decay of body an organs involved in two ways a) Autolysis b) Putrefaction
a) Autolysis Breakdown of Cells and tissue cause by ENZYMES from BODY
b) Putrefaction Break down of Cells and tissue cause by BACTERIA from ENVIRONM. or BODY (microorganisms)
Hypoxia Lack of Oxygen
Cellular Degeneration -Memb. Sodium-Potassium Pump dysfunction Changes intracellular and extracellular functions
Systemic Effecting BODY as a WHOLE
Local Specific to Area that is Effected
Li-que-faction FLUID & SMALL Mol. CATABOLYSE + Removed through BLOOD STREAM & LYMPHATIC sys.
Sup-pur-ation Liquefaction with PUS Formation
Py-o-genic Bacteria PUS forming
Pus/Purlent EXUDATE Semi-Liquid Necrotic
Lytic Enzymes -Secreted by BACTERIA, DEAD TISS. CELLS & Dying NEUTRAPHILS
Sequ-est-ration ENCAPSULATION without Liquefaction
D -esquamation + Sloughing (2 ways) DEAD cells loosing their ATTACHMENT into space or lumen 1) Erosion 2) Ulceration
Erosion Only SUPERFICIAL Epithelium
Ulceration FULL thickening of Epithelium LOST -To BASMENT Memb.
Organisation NECROTIC Tiss. processed with the presence of -Leukocytes =Engulf NECROTIC mat. -Capillaries -Fibroblasts=Lays down CONNECTIVE Tiss-FILLS GAPS =MATURATION
Regenration =Only occurs in Cells that DIVIDE -Cells survive initial damage. Will MULITIPLE & REPLACE DEAD cells Don't occur in neurons and Cardiac mus.
Gangrene -DIGESTION of Necrotic tiss. a) Toxaemia b) Sloughing
Toxaemia -DECOMPOSITION of bodies PROTEINS and removed through BLOOD STREAM and LYMPHATICS
A- trophy (A-Accident ) " SHRINKED" Dec in Size e.g Disuse Atrophy -Broken Leg
Hypertrophy -INC in SIZE due to inc CELL SIZE
Meta-plasia "CHANGE" from 1 CELL to Another
Hypo-plasia Hyp o -plas i a " INCOMPLETE" Growth Extremes: Aplasia Agensis Atresia
Aplasia A-p (Flip) b "ABSENSE"
Agenisis g-Goal e-Embryo "FAILURE" to develop in Embryo
Atresia a-Ass "CLOSURE" or "ABSENCE" of LUMANL struct.
Dysplacia "LACK" of Histological ARCHITECTURE -Jumbled distribution of tissue
Distribution of Circulation inadequate CIRCULATION of BLOOD
Hyper-aemia INC - blood FLOW to Area
Congestion Impeded Flow "OUT"
hypostatic 'POOLING' of blood
Ischaemia 'WITHOUT' BLOOD -inadequate blood supply
Volvus an OBSTRUCTION caused by TWISTING of the stomach or intestine.
Infarction 'LOCALISED' Area of "NECROSIS" caused by ISCHAEMIA Wedge shaped kidney
Anaemia "LACK" of OXYGEN in blood
Acute "QUICK" onset
Chronic " LONG" onset over several days
Thrombus "BLOOD CLOT" that forms in vessel during LIFE
Thrombosis Formation of an "INAPPROPRIATE" Thrombus on wall of a vessel (Blood or Lymph.)
Vascular Stasis "DEC" in Blood FLOW
Aneurysms "DILATED" heart Chamber
Embo-lus Abnormal "MASS" circulating in blood
Embo-lism "ARREST" of Circulatory "MASS" in vessel
Throm-boem-boli Formed from "THROMBI" -Bits of THROBUS breaking off -Travel to lungs=DEATH
Haemorrhage "BLEEDING" from damaged vessels
Haematoma -"LOCALISED" accum. of Blood =CLOT
Pete-chiae p-pin "PIN POINT" Haemorrhage
Ec-chym-oses e-Educational Painting "PAINT BRUSH" Haemorrhage
Bruising -SUB Q Haemorrhage
Haemo-peri-cardium Blood in Pericardium
Haemo-thorax Blood in Thorax
Haemo-peritoneum Blood in Abdominal cavity
Shock "Failure" of Circ. Sysy. to Adequately "PERFUSE" vital Organs -vascular dilation
Hypo-vol-aemic Shock DEC blood Volume
Vascu-lo-genic shock INC Vascular space
Septic Infected with Bacteria
Cardio-genic Shock "REDUCED" cardiac Output
Dys-rhyth-mia Abnormal Heart Rhythm
Endo-toxic Shock Severe Vaso-dilation
Diuresis -Water loss through kidneys
Oedema "EXCESSIVE" Acculam. of Tiss FLUID
Ascites Accum. of fluid in "PERITONEAL" cavity - causing Abdominal "SWELLING"
Hydrothorax Fluid in the thorax
Hydropericardium Fluid in the pericardial space
Anasarca Widespread "SWELLING" of SKIN due to effusion of fluid into the extracellular space.
Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) Pressure du to mol. inside the vessel
Osmotic Pressure pressure needed to be applied to a pure solvent to prevent it from passing into a given solution by osmosis
Coloid Osmotic Pressure (COP) Pressure due to the concn. of PROTEINS in vessel
Hypoalbuminaemia DEC formation of Albumin or INC. LOSS
Lymphoedema Oedema due to lymphatic syst. BREAKDOWN
Pulmonary Oedema Left side of heart fails causes BACKFLOW into blood vessels
Cerebral Oedema Fluid on the brain
Anaphylaxis an acute allergic reaction to an antigen (e.g. a bee sting) to which the body has become hypersensitive.
Pleuritis Inflammation of the pleura
Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
Enteritis Inflammation of the Intestines
Gastritis Inflammation of the Stomach & Intestines
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
Cystitis Inflammation of the bladder
Nephritis Inflammation of the kidney
Osteomyelitis Inflammation of the bone
Stomatitis Inflammation of the oral cavity/mouth
Tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils
Gingivitis Inflammation of the gums
Causes of inflammation Trauma Physical agents Chemical irritants Bacteria Viruses Parasites Allergic Alleries
Created by: Melissa Jones