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CfE Higher 5-6

CfE Higher Vocab - Topic 5 (Evolution) & Topic 6 (Genomics & Sequencing)

TermDefinition
Directional selection The type of selection where one extreme phenotype is more advantageous than both the average and the other extreme phenotype.
Pharmacogenetics The study of how the actions of and reactions to drugs vary with the patient's genes.
Allopatric speciation Occurs due to populations becoming physically separated; it is brought about by geographical barriers.
Sexual selection Natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex.
Geographical barriers These include mountains, deserts, oceans and rivers that physically separate organisms and prevent populations from interbreeding
Bioinformatics The science of collecting and analysing complex biological data such as genetic code.
Molecular clocks An estimated rate of change over time of the nucleotide sequences of DNA molecules.
Disruptive selection The type of selection where those with extreme phenotypes have an advantage and those with average fitness are selected against.
Founder effect An example of genetic drift. Occurs when a new colony is started by a few members of the original population.
Phylogenetics The field of biology that deals with identifying and understanding the relationship between the different kinds of life on Earth, others use the term 'evolutionary relatedness'.
Genetic drift The change in allele frequency due to a chance event. Small populations that are isolated from each other can vary greatly due to changes in allele frequencies
Sympatric speciation A form of speciation where two species arise within the same habitat. It occurs as a result of behavioural or ecological barriers.
Stabilising selection The type of selection where the average phenotype is selected and the extremes survive much less well, possibly even disappearing.
Evolution The changes that occur to a species over time, leading to offspring that are better adapted to survive in their environment than the previous generation.
Natural selection The mechanism by which evolution occurs. It is a process that selects the phenotypes that are best suited to the survival of a species in its particular environment.
Gene pool The complete set of unique alleles in a species or population.
Speciation The evolutionary process leading to the formation of new species.
Ecological barriers These include factors such as temperature, pH, salinity, humidity and altitude which act to separate populations.
Reproductive barriers For example, if individuals in a population become fertile at different times of the year, their sexual organs change, or their courtship behaviour is different or unattractive, then the individuals cannot mate.
Created by: amymurney