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Mrs C's final A&P

Mrs C's Final A&P Exam

QuestionAnswer
The anterior side of the body is subdivided into which cavities? Thoracic and Abdominopelvic
Which blood cells have no nucleus? Red Blood Cells
The greater and lesser trochanters are located at which end of the femur? Proximal
The lower lobes of the lungs are called what? Bases
The radius is attached to the hand at which end? At its distal end.
Which is the long bone in the upper arm? Humerus
The humerus joins the elbow at which end? The distal
The abdominopelvic cavity can be divided into how many quadrants? 4
What position is it when the palms are turned up (like holding a bowl of soup)? Supination
What is cellular drinking? Pinocytosis
In cephalocaudal or head to toe order, name the vertebral sections of the spine. Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx
What is the cellular structure considered the "brain" of the cell and where most of the DNA is stored? Nucleus
What is the powerhouse of the cell? The mitochondria
What is the energy transfer molecule? ATP or adenosine triphosphate
What is described as a semi-permeable lipid bilayer? The cell membrane
What is abnormal development of tissue? Dysplasia
Of the 4 major tissue types in the body, which is the most abundant? Connective
Which law states that the greater the ability of the fiber to stretch, the greater the force of constriction? Starling's Law
What is phagocytosis? Cellular eating
Respiratory Alkalosis is caused by what? Hyperventilating
What is it called when a cell or cellular structure "expels" something to the outside of the membrane? Exocytosis
Which organelle expels protein to the outside of the cell membrane? The Golgi Apparatus
What are the sites of protein synthesis? The robosomes
Systolic phase of BP occurs during what? Ventricular contraction
Where are the robosomes found? On the rough endoplasmic reticulum
What is a solution called that cause no movement of substance across the cell membrane? Isotonic
What is the NaCl percentage in normal saline which is considered isotonic? 0.9%
What is the element or compound that carries an electrical charge? The ion
A cation is a positively or negatively charged ion? Positively
If the ion is negatively charged it a what? It is an anion
What are molecular compounds which break apart into their positive and negative parts in water? Electrolytes
Which compound is a waste product of cellular metabolism that must be eliminated by the body? Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The more hydrogen cations present in a compound makes it more what? More acidic
What are the 3 mechanism (in order of importance) that work to maintain acid-base balance in the body? BLK: blood buffers, lungs and kidneys
What is pinocytosis? Cellular drinking
What type of tissue are skeletal, smooth and cardiac? Muscle
Which membranes line cavities that are open to the outside of the body? The Mucous membranes
Water moves acrossed membranes by a passive called what? Osmosis
The Pleura, Peritoneum and Pericardium are what types of membrane? Serous membranes
The Peritoneum functions mainly to do what? To anchor the organs of digestion
Adductors are muscle groups that allow movement towards or away from the midline? Towards the midline
What make up the integumentary system? The skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands and sweat glands
Patients who are hypoventilating may decline into a state of respiratory what? Respiratory Acidosis
Robosomes are sites for what? Protein Synthesis
Vocal cords produce sound on inhalation or exhalation? Exhalation
When the right ventricle contracts, deoxygenated blood goes through the pulomonary semilunar valve to the lungs to dump C02 and pick up 02. This is a description of what? Pulmonary Circulation
What are the two types of vocal cords? The true and false vocal cords
That is name of the functional cell of the CNS? The neuron
When volume changes, pressure changes and when volume increases, pressure decreases are related to which law of ventilation? Boyles Law
What does PTH (parathyroid hormone) do? Increases serum calcium levels
Which system and its hormones helps regulate metabolic processes, fluid and electrolyte balance, play an important role in growth and development and meets the demands of stress and trauma? The Endocrine System
What does the Endocrine System do? It helps regulate metabolic processes, fluid & electrolyte balance, plays an important role in growth & development and meets the demands of stress and trauma.
Which is the only hormone that lowers blood sugar? Insulin
Which organ secretes insulin? The pancreas
Which compound is the waste product of all cellular metabolism? Carbon dioxide (CO2)
What is the nitrogenous waste excreted by the kidneys? Urea
What is the chief extracellular cation? Sodium (Na+)
What is the chief extracellular anion? Cloride (Cl-)
Which hormone stimulates Na+ (Sodium) reabsorption? Aldosterone
Which hormone stimulates resbsorption of water? ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)
Most exchange of gases occur across which structure? Alveoli
Which organs lead from the kidneys to the bladder? The ureters
What occurs mainly in the red bone marrow of the long bones? Hematopoiesis (the process of blood cell production)
Which lung has 3 lobes? The right lung
When cell membrane integrity is impaired, fluids leak from the intracellular space into the interstitial spaces. This leads to to swelling referred to as what? Edema
The lungs are separated by what space? The mediastinal space
On the pH scale, gastric (HCl) acid is closest to which number on the pH scale, zero or 14? Zero
What is the normal pH range of human blood? 7.35 and 7.45
The normal pH of human blood makes it slightly alkaline or slightly acid? Slightly alkaline
Which is the chief muscle of breathing? The Diaphragm
The rectus abdominum, traverse abdominus, internal and external obliques are grouped on what side of the abdominopelvic cavity? The anterior
Which cranial nerve is associated with the sense of smell? Cranial Nerve #1 or C1
Cranial Nerve X (10) is also known as which nerve? The Vagus Nerve
The frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal bones are parts of what? The skull or cranium
The cecum, sigmoid and rectum are parts of what? The Large intestine
In which part of the small intestine does most digestion and absorption takes place? In the duodenum
The cecum, appendix, and ascending colon are located longitudinally along which side of the abdominopelvic cavity? The right side
In what part of the body is the food that we eat altered until it forms chyme? In the stomach
Once the food we eat is formed into chyme, it is released in small amounts into which part of the small intestine? The duodenum
What is the name of the tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach? The esophagus
What does the liver synthesize and the gallbladder secrete to aid in the breakdown of fat? Bile
Which cells of the pancreas produce insulin? The beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans
Which is the only hormone that lowers blood sugar? Insulin
What do the alpha cells of the ilet of Langerhans produce? Glucagon
What does Glucagon do? It increaes blood sugar
What are the convolutions or wrinkles of the cerebrum called? Gyri
What are the wrinkles in the stomach and urinary bladder called? Rugae
What is that last segment of the small intestine called? Ilium
What is the first part of the large intestine called? Cecum
The part where the ilium is attached to the cecum is called the what? The ileocecal valve
In which quadrant are the ilium and cecum located? Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
Jaundice is caused by what being deposited in the skin? Bilirubin
What is the bluish discoloration of the skin due to decreased oxygen? Cyanosis
Which part of the integumentary system is called the "true skin"? The dermis
Asthma is caused by smooth muscle spasms of the what? The Bronchi
What are the 3 respiratory disorders classified as COPD? Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema
What are the 3 steps of respiration? Ventilation, Gas Exchange and Transport of Waste
Epinephrine is the same as what? Adrenaline
Epinephrine is produced in response to stimulation of which division of the autonomic nervous system? The Sympathetic Division
What affect does a sympathetic nervous system response have on the Bronchi? The bronchi dilate
Arteries carry blood towards or away from the heart? Away from the heart
What affect does a sympathetic nervous system response have on the intestines? Inhibits motility or they stop
What affect does a sympathetic nervous system response have on the heart rate? Increases rate and strenght of contraction
What affect does a sympathetic nervous system response have on the blood vessels? They constrict or Hypertension (HTN)
The Larynx is located in the Upper or Lower Respiratory? Upper
The Pharynx is located in the Upper or Lower Respiratory? Upper
NACl mixed with H20 dissociates into separate particles, Na+ and Cl-. This process is called what? Ionization
The bronchioles are located in the Upper or Lower Respiratory? Lower
Which is the master gland of the endocrine system? The Pituatary Gland
What are the 4 major tissue types? Connective, Epithelial, nervous and muscle
What are the 2 types of membranes? Mucous and serous
What are the sections of the small intestine? The DJI or Duodenum, jejunum and ilium
What are the sections of the large intestine and in order? Cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum and anus
The ascending is on the right or left side of the abdominopelvic cavity? Right
The descending is on the right or left side of the abdominopelvic cavity? Left
Which element classifies matter as organic or living? Carbon (C)
What are the tubes called that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder? Ureters
The vital center of the brain is the waht? The medulla Oblongata
The medulla oblongata is more sensitive to changes in levels of which 2 elements than to oxygen? Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Hydrogen (H+)
Narcotics depress the medulla oblongata which then depress what? Ventilation or the respiratory system
What happens when your diaphragm is triggered by the phrenic nerve? You inhale
The availability of which type of cation determines acidity? Hydrogen
What is the universal solvent and is essential to life but is not technically organic? Water
Which cell are processed and matured in the Thymus gland? T cells
Which type of T cell is severely impaired in HIV infestion? The Helper T Cell
What mineral does the thyroid need to produce T3 and T4 hormones? Iodine
What is produced by the pituitary gland and targets the thyroid? TSH
If a patient taking synthetic thyroid hormone has an elevated plasma TSH, do they need to increase or decrease their medicine? Increase
Flushing and sweating serves to do what to the body temperature? Lower the body temperature
Arteries (with one exception) carry what type of blood towards or away from the heart? Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
The alveoli are to the lungs as the what are to the kidneys? Nephrons
Which type of cell in the CNS is capable of conducting an impulse? The neuron
Anatomy is the study of what? Structure
Physiology is the study of what? Function
The Nephrons are to the kidneys as the what are to the lungs? Alveoli
The long bone in the thigh contains the greater and lesser trochanters at which end? The proximal end
The renin/angiotensin actions or the urinary system function to do what to blood pressure? To maintain blood pressure
Which bone is also known as the "shin" The Tibia
The shin bone is located on which side of the lower leg? The anterior side
What are the separate bones that make up the spine called? Vertebrae
Pronation of the hands is palms up or down? Palms down
What is the name of the chemically altered 'pea soup' substance raw food is reduced to by the stomach? Chyme
What is the passive process called where gqases are exchanged across the alveoli? Diffusion
Diastole occurs during what? Ventricular relaxation
What percentage of a human's total weight is water? 50-60%
What is the normal pH of human blood? 7.35 to 7.45
What is the name of the muscle that caps the shoulder? Deltoid
What is the name of the muscle on the dorsal aspect of the upper arm that has three heads? Triceps
The kidneys are located in which region? The retroperitoneal region or the parietal peritoneum
The kidneys are attached to the membrane by what type of tissue? Adipose tissue
What are the endocrine glands sitting on top of the kidneys called? The adrenal glands
What other name are the adrenal glands called and why? Suprarenal because of their position above (supra) the kidneys (renal)
What is the distal tip of the heart called? The apex
The tip of the superior lobes of the lungs are called what? Apices
Unoxygenated blood enters the right atrium from where? The Vena Cava
Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and hyperglycemia are symptoms of what? Diabetes Mellitus
The posterior side of the body is subdivided into which cavities? The Cranial and Spinal
The greater and lesser trochanters are located a the proximal end of which bone? Femur
What is cellular eating? Phagocytosis
Which cavity can be divided into 9 regions? The abdominopelvic cavity
What position is it when the palms are turned down? Pronation
Because the renin/agniotensin actions of the urinary system function to maintain BP they are considered what? Vasopressors
Mucous membranes line cavities that are open to what? To the outside of the body
Which reflex is controlled by sensors in the carotid and aortic arches and works to make adjustments to BP with postural changes? The Baroreceptor
What is asystole? No heartbeat
Oxygenated blood returns to the heart through which veins into the left atria? Pulmonary Veins
Oxygenated blood returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins into the left atria, thru the mitral valve into the left ventricle through the aortic semilunar valve to the aorta and out to the body. What does this describe? Systemic Circulation
Vocal cords produce sound when vibration of the what occurs? Vibration of the glottis (true vocal cord)
Veins have one-way what? One-way valves
Veins promote the direction of blood flow towards or away from the heart? Towards the heart
What affect does a sympathetic nervous system response have on the pupils? The pupils dilate
What type of action aids the arteries in carrying blood away from the heart? Smooth muscle Action
What type of muscle contraction aids the arteries in carrying blood away from the heart? Skeletal muscle Contraction
Shivering does what to the body temperature? Raises body temperature
Veins (with one exception)carry what away from or towards the heart? Veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart
What is the thickness of capillaries which form bridges between veins and arteries? One epithelial cell thick
Oxygenated blood is supplied to the myocardial tissue by what? By coronary arteries
What is the breakdown of epithelial tisue which can extend into the dermis and subcutaneous layers and in layman's terms is called a 'bed sore'? Decubitus Ulcer
Detoxification of toxins and drugs is performed mainly by which organ? The Liver
Where is the Liver located and in which cavity? In the RUQ of the abdominalpelvic cavity
Where is the brain located and in which cavity On the Dorsal side of the cranial cavity
Anterior equals what equals Front? Ventral
Poterior equals what equals Back? Dorsal
What is the body's repone to invasion of pathogens or foreign body and symptoms are redness, pain, edema or heat? Inflammation
What is anything that occupies space and has weight? Matter
What is the smallest unit of an element, that still retains the propertie of that element? Atom
H20 is a molecule, compound or both? Both
NACl mixed with H20 dissociates into separate particles, Na+ and Cl-, this means sodium chloride is a what? An electrolyte
The Bronichi are located in the Upper or Lower Respiratory? Lower
How many lobes does the left lung have? 2
Created by: bsmymicareo