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Biology Chapter 10

Biology Chapter 10 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Virulent Disease-causing
Transformation The type of transfer of genetic material from one cell to another cell or from one organism to another organism.
Bacteriophage Viruses that infect bacteria.
Nucleotide The two long chains of repeating subunits that make up DNA.
Deoxyribose The five-carbon sugar in a DNA nucleotide.
Nitrogenous Base An organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or a pyrimidine.
Purine Nitrogenous bases that have a double ring of nitrogen and carbon atoms, such as adenine and guanine.
Pyrimidine Nitrogenous bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, such as cytosine and thymine.
Base-pairing Rules The rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA.
Complementary Base Pair The nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand.
Base Sequence The order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA.
DNA Replication The process by which DNA is copied in a call before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission.
Helicase An enzyme that separates DNA strands.
Replication Fork A Y-shaped point that when the two strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated.
DNA Polymerase An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
Semi-conservative Replication In each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new.
Mutation A change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) A natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
Transcription The process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template.
Translation The portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
Protein Synthesis The formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA.
Ribose A five-carbon sugar present in RNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) An organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) An RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation.
RNA Polymerase An enzyme that starts the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
Promoter A nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene.
Termination Signal A specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene.
Genetic Code The rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Codon In DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
Anticodon A region of tRNA that consist of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA.
Genome The complete genetic material contained in an individual.
Created by: derrickbowen