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NADN 2120: HIV/AIDS

HIV and AIDS

QuestionAnswer
Virus which attacks immune system in humans HIV
Medical condition in which the immune system is too weak to fight infections AIDS
1.2 million people in the US are living with _______. 50,000 new ______ are diagnosed each year. HIV Infection
Almost 1 in 5 are unaware of being infected with _____. HIV
Gay, bisexual, and MSM are most affected group. Accounts for 61% of all new infections. HIV
Young black/AA MSM are most seriously affected group with ________ HIV
Unless the course of the epidemic changes, at some point in their lifetime, an estimated 1 out 16 black men and 1 out of 32 black women will be diagnosed with ______. HIV
Blood, vaginal secretions, seminal fluid, amniotic fluid, and breastmilk are body fluids known to transmit _________ HIV
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV may occur in utero, at the time of delivery, or through breastfeeding, but most are thought to occur ________. During delivery
Inflammation/breaks in the skin/mucosa _________ probability that HIV exposure will lead to _________. Increase Infection
What are some ways HIV CANNOT be spread? Sharing food, kissing, hugging, swimming pools, toilet seats, bed linens, doorknobs, shaking hands, living and working with an infected person, towels, combs, mosquitoes and other insects
What are three examples of health promotion regarding HIV? Consistent and correct use of condoms (latex). Needle exchange programs. Encourage abstinence.
CDC developed ___________ to be used with all patients, regardless of infectious status. Standard Precautions
Post-exposure prophylaxis includes reporting, testing, __________, and ___________. Prophylactic medication Psychosocial support
Risk of developing HIV infection from a needle stick with infected blood is about 1 in _____ without prompt __________ treatment. 300 Antiretroviral
Risk of developing HIV increases with deep punctures, hollow bore needles, blood on the needle, and ________ from the source. High Viral Load
HIV infection risk for mucous membrane exposure is 1 in ______. 9000
Most importantly, immediately following an HIV exposure, you should 1)__________ and 2)______. Wash and rinse Report it
Think of HIV as an intracellular _________ Parasite
HIV is caused by a ___________ that infects and depletes the _______ . Retrovirus T cells
The retrovirus is an ______ virus that replicates in a host cell. RNA
The RNA virus frequently __________ and makes med regimen very difficult. Mutates
The RNA transcripts into DNA and is integrated into the host genetic material through ___________. Reverse Transcription
Once the RNA virus enters the body, it attaches to _____ molecules, which are a type of ______ and further infects the body. CD4 T cell
With progressive invasion of HIV, cellular and humoral immunity declines and ___________ infections develop. Opportunistic
CD4 is found on the mature __________. Helper T Cells
65% of T cells in the blood are _____ cells. CD4
CD4 is a member of the __________ family. Immunoglobulin
CD4 has 4 external domains which are comprised of __________. Protein
Acute (primary) infection is the ______ stage of HIV First (Acute) Stage
During which stage of HIV are large amounts of the virus being produced in the body? First (Acute) Stage
In the first stage of ______, many, but not all, people develop flu-like symptoms often described as "the worst flu of my life". HIV
Normal CD4 count is __________ cells/mm3 500-1500 cells/mm3
Latency is the _________ stage of HIV infection. Second (Latent) Stage
During this stage, HIV reproduces at very low levels, although it is still active. May not have symptoms. May remain in this stage for several decades with treatment. Without treatment, about 10 years. Second (Latent) Stage
People are typically in what stage of HIV when diagnosed Second (Latent) Stage
What CD4 count is considered to be in latency phase of HIV? CD4 count of 200-499
What is the third stage of HIV? AIDS
Without treatment, people in the third stage of HIV typically survive _____ years. Three
What is the CD4 count and stage of HIV when: Significant opportunist infection occur, eligible for disability, life span decreases to 3 years or less CD4 count <200 AIDS
What are three ways to test for HIV? Which is most accurate? Mouth swab Urine Blood Sample (Most accurate)
First test ran to detect HIV. Can have initial negative result. Takes up to two weeks for results. Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA)
Test after positive EIA. Used to confirm HIV. Takes up to two weeks for results. Western Blot
Track _________ to see what effects meds are having. Decrease in this could mean delay to stage three. Viral Load
Gives picture of general health. Higher levels is what is desired. CD4 Count
General picture of overall health. Common test ran for multiple other diagnoses/purposes. CBC
Only FDA approved HIV home test. Results in 20 minutes. Use in home and OB when quick confirmation. OraQuick Advance
Reduce HIV morbidity, prolong duration and quality of survival, restore and preserve immunologic function, suppress HIV viral load, and prevent HIV transmission are all goals for initiating ______. ART
Art leads to _______HIV replication and _____ CD4 counts. Decreased Increased
Term for redistribution syndrome Lipodystrophy
80% of patients will develop this without prophylactic treatment. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)
If left untreated, PCP will lead to respiratory failure and death in a matter of ______ days. 2 to 3
PCP is a ______ infection that proliferates in the alveoli causing consolidation Fungal
Term for "full of fluid" Consolidation
CXR of person with PCP will show bilateral patchy _______. Infiltrates
What are ways of diagnosing PCP? CXR, Sputum culture or bronchoscopy, blood tests and possible biopsy of lung
What are ways of treating PCP? Antifungals, steroids, RT, O2, rest
Another term for wasting Cachexia
Involves endothelial layer of blood and lymphatic vessels. Localized or systemic lesions that involve multiple organs. Diagnosed by cutaneous biopsy. Associated with low CD4 count. Deep purple to brown. Kaposi's Sarcoma
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lymphoma to brain, bone marrow, GI tract. Diagnosed via biopsy. Very aggressive and tend to resist chemo. Malignancies/Lymphomas
Most common neurological disorder. Pain and numbness in extremities, weakness, and functional impairment. Peripheral Neuropathy
HIV Encephalopathy is also known as ________. AIDS Dementia
Gradual decline in cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. Memory deficits, HA, difficulty concentrating. Progressive confusion and psychomotor slowing. Apathy and ataxia. HIV Encephalopathy (AIDS Dementia)
Cryptococcus Neoformans is a fungal infection that can lead to_________. Meningitis
Results in demyelination to the CNS. Mental confusion, blindness, aphasia, paralysis, and death. Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Leading cause of blindness in person with AIDS. CMV Retinopathy (Retinitis)
The attempt to block or suppress viral replication within cells. Use a cocktail of 3 or 4 meds. Antiretroviral Therapy
Malnutrition increases risk for __________. Infection
_______are tailored to the individual for nutritional therapy. Calorie Counts
Ideal diet for HIV patient is what? High calorie, easily digested, protein, low-fat, inexpensive, doesn't produce gas or diarrhea
Created by: mreedy