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Biology Chapter 10

What is DNA made up of? DNA is made up of repeating subunits of nucleotides.
3 Parts of a DNA nucleotide. Sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate (phosphorus), and 1 of 4 nitrogen containing bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine).
Purines Adenine and guanine.
Pyrimidines Cytosine and thymine.
Double Helix Watson and Crick came up with a model of a double helix for the structure for DNA.
Signifying nitrogen bases with letters Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T).
Complementary base pairs C-G, T-A.
Replication Process of copying DNA in a cell.
Original sequence of DNA ATTCCG
New nucleotide chain TAAGGC
Mutation A change in the nucleotide sequence.
What is RNA responsible for? RNA is responsible for the movement of genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytosol.
Structure of RNA Consists of sugar (ribose), phosphate, nitrogen containing bases.
How does RNA differ from DNA? The sugar in is ribose, thymine is not present, uracil is, and RNA is single stranded.
Types of RNA 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) 2. Transfer RNA (tRNA) 3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Messenger RNA Consists of RNA nucleotides in the form of a single uncoiled chain. It carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the cytosol (cytoplasm).
Transfer RNA Binds to specific amino acids. There are about 45 varieties. Consists of a single strand chain pf about 80 RNA nucleotides folded into a hairpin shape that binds to specific amino acids.
Ribosomal RNA Most ubundant form. Consists of RNA nucleotides in a globular form. When joined by proteins, it makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made.
Transcription The process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA.
Promoters These marks the beginning and continues until it reaches a termination signal.
mRNA Moves through the pores of the nuclear membrane into the cytosol where it will direct protein synthesis.
Protein Synthesis This is the production of proteins.
Proteins Proteins are polymers. Made up of one or more polypeptides. May consist of thousands of amino acids arranged in a particular sequence.
Genetic Code Correlation between a nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence.
What does the genetic code do? Used by most organisms to translate mRNA transcripts into proteins.
Codon A codon is 3 mRNA nucleotides.
What does a codon do? It codes for a specific amino acid. A few codons do not code for amino acids at all. These codons signal for translation of an mRNA to start or stop.
Start Codon AUG
Stop Codon UAA, UAG, UGA.
Translation The process assembling polypeptides from information encoded in mRNA.
Created by: bethanyhatten