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Biology Chapter 10

Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is made up of repeating subunits of nucleotides. has 2 chains of nucleotides
3 parts of DNA nucleotide sugar, phosphate, 1 of 4 nitrogen containing bases
sugar deoxyribose
phosphate phosphorous
1 of 4 nitrogen bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
purines made of two rings of carbon adenine, guanine
pyrimidines with only 1 carbon ring cytosine, thymine
who suggested the model of double helix for the structure of DNA Watson and crick
what did Watson and crick win nobel prize in medicine, 1962
where do bases face ? Toward the center and they face the base of other chains with which they form hydrogen bonds
Letters are used to signify what nitrogen bases
complementary pairs C-G, T-A
replication the process of copying DNA in a cell
what happens during replication the 2 nucleotide chains separate b unwinding. Each chain are now the new beginning of a new nucleotide chain. They're separated by enzymes called helicases. It breaks hydrogen bonds between bases.
helicases the chains separated by enzymes
DNA polymerase enzymes that bind to the separated chains of DNA.
1 in ever 10,000 how often do errors occur in paired nucleotides
mutation a change in the nucleotide sequence causes what
1 per 1 billion nucleotides enzymes can repair errors and bring the error rate down to what
RNA what is responsible for the movement of genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytosol
sugar, phosphate, nitrogen containing base what does RNA consist of
mRNA consists of RNA nucleotides in the form of a single uncoiled chain. Carries genetic information from DNA is the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
tRNA binds to specific amino acids. There are about 45 varieties of tRNA. Consists of a single chain of about 80 RNA nucleotides folded into a hairpin shape that binds to specific amino acids.
rRNA most abundant form. Consists of RNA nucleotides in a globular form. Joined by protiends, it makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made.
transcription process by which genetic information si copied from dna to rna.
promoters marker the beginning and continues until it reaches a termination signal
transcripts the products of transcription
whre does mRNA move it makes through the pores of the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm where it direct protein synthesis
cytosol cytoplasm
protein synthesis the production of proteins
what determines the structure and function of the cell the amount and kind of proteins that are produced
Created by: mamawrain