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Biology Chapter 10

Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

TermDefinition
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; made of repeating subunits of nucleotides; it consists of 2 chains of nucleotides.
Parts of DNA sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate (phosphorous), bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine)
Purines adenine and guanine; made of two rings of carbon.
pyrimidines cytosine and thymine; only one ring of carbon
Watson and Crick suggested models of double helix for the structure of DNA. They won a Nobel Prize in 1962 in medicine.
Complementary Pairs C---G and T---A
Replication of DNA the copying of DNA
process of replication part 1 2 nucleotide chains separate by unwinding and each chain is the base for a new chain.
process of replication part 2 Enzymes called DNA polymerase bind to the separated DNA chains. New chains are assembled using Nucleotides.
process of replication part 3 2 copies of the original nucleotides are produced.
Accuracy of replication one error in every 10,000 paired nucleotides.
Repair of errors Enzymes can repair the errors and bring the chance down to 1/1,000,000,000.
RNA ribonucleic acid
responsibilities of RNA RNA is responsible for the movement of genetic information from the DNA to the site of protein synthesis.
structure of RNA repeating unites of sugar (ribose), phosphate, and a nitrogen containing base.
DNA vs RNA the sugar in RNA is only ribose, thymine is not present, and RNA is single stranded.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) a single uncoiled change of RNA nucleotides. carries genetic information.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) 45 varieties, consists of about 80 nucleotides shaped like a hairpin.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) most abundant form of RNA. It is in a globular shape. it makes up the ribosomes where the proteins are made.
transcription process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA.
protein synthesis the production of proteins.
proteins polymers; made of one of more polypeptides; 20 types of amino acids; three dimensional structure determined by sequence amino acids.
genetic code correlation between a nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence.
codon 3 mRNA nucleotides
start codon AUG
stop codon UAA, UAG, UGA
translation the process of assembling polypeptides from information encoded in mRNA
anticodon the loop opposite of the site of amino acid attachment, complementary with the mRNA codon.
ribsome composed of RNA and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
ribose sugar
Created by: sabota1659