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Psychology 122

Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
Motivation The biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.
Instinct Theories The view that certain human behaviors are innate and due to evolutionary programming.
Drive Theories The view that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs.
Homeostasis The idea that the body monitors and maintains internal states, such as body temperature and energy supplies, at relatively consistent levels; in general, the tendency to reach or maintain equilibrium.
Drive A need or internal motivational state that activates behavior to reduce the need and restore homeostasis.
Incentive Theories The view that behavior is motivated by the pull of external goals, such as rewards.
Arousal Theory The view that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is optimal – neither too high nor too low.
Sensation Seeking The degree to which an individual is motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal associated with varied and novel activites.
Humanistic Theories of Motivation The view that emphasizes the importance of psychological and cognitive factors in motivation, especially the notion that people are motivated to realize their personal potential.
Glucose Simple sugar that provides energy and is primarily produced by the conversion of carbohydrates and fats; commonly called blood sugar.
Insulin Hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood levels of glucose and signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
Basal Metabolic Rate When Body is at rest, the rate at which it uses energy for vital functions, such as heartbeat and respiration.
Adipose Tissue Body fat that is the main source of stored, or reserve, energy.
Energy Homeostasis The long-term matching of food intake to energy expenditure.
Ghrelin Hormone manufacture primarily by the stomach that stimulates appetite and the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.
Positive Incentive Value In eating behavior, the anticipated pleasure of consuming a particular food; in general, the expectation of pleasure or satisfaction in performing a particular behavior.
Satiation In eating behavior, the feeling of fullness and diminished desire to eat that accompanies eating a meal; in general, the sensation of having an appetite or desire fully or excessively satisfied.
Cholecystokinin Hormone secreted primarily in the small intestine that promotes satiation; also found in the brain.
Sensory-Specific Satiety The reduced desire to consume a particular food.
Leptin Hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
Neuropeptide Y Neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain.
Set-Point Theory Theory that proposes that humans and other animals have a natural or optimal body weight, called the Set-Point Weight, that the body defends from becoming higher or lower by regulating feeling of hunger and body metabolism.
Setting-Point models of Weight Regulation General model of weigh regulation suggesting that body weight settles, or stabilizes, around the point at which there is balance between the factors influencing energy intake and expenditure.
Body Mass Index A numerical scale indicating adult height in regulation to weight, calculated as (703 x weight in pounds)(height in inches).
Obese Condition characterized by excessive body fat and a body mass index equal to or greater than 30.0.
Cafeteria Diet Effect The tendency to eat more when a wide variety of palatable food is available.
Leptin Resistance A condition in which higher-than-normal blood levels of the hormone leptin do not produce the physiological response.
Weight Cycling Repeated cycles of dieting, weight loss, and weight regain; also called yo-yo dieting.
Eating Disorder A category of mental disorders characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.
Anorexia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by excessive weight loss, an irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body self-perception.
Bulimia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or other inappropriate methods to purge the excessive food and prevent weight gain.
Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s hierarchical division of motivation into levels that progress from basic physical needs to psychological needs to self-fulfillment needs.
Self-Actualization Defined by Maslow as a person’s “full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, and potentialities”.
Self-Determination Theory Edward Deci and Richard Ryan’s theory that optimal human functioning can occur only if the physical needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
Intrinsic Motivation The desire to engage in tasks that the person finds inherently satisfying and enjoyable, novel, or optimally challenging; the desire to do something just for its own sake.
Extrinsic Motivation External factors or influences on behavior, such as rewards, consequences or social expectations.
Competence Motivation The desire to direct one’s behavior toward demonstrating competence and exercising control in a situation.
Achievement Motivation The desire to direct one’s behavior toward excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some task.
Thematic Apperception Test A projective test developed by Henry Murray and his colleagues that involves creating stories about ambiguous scenes that can be interpreted in a variety of ways.
Emotion A complex psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response.
Emotional Intelligence The capacity to understand and manage your own emotional experiences and to perceive, comprehend, and respond appropriately to the emotional responses of others.
Basic Emotions The most fundamental set of emotion categories, which are biologically innate, evolutionarily determined, and culturally universal.
Interpersonal Engagement Emotion dimension reflecting the degree to which emotions involve a relationship with another person or other people.
Amygdala Almond-shape cluster of neurons in the brain’s temporal lobe, involved in memory and emotional responses, especially fear.
Brain Fingerprinting Technique use to detect lies or deception, which uses an electroencephalograph to analyze brain waves; determines whether a stimulus is familiar ( i.e. recognized because it is stored in the suspect’s memory) or unfamiliar.
Display Rules Social and cultural regulations governing emotional expression, especially facial expressions.
Anthropomorphism The attribution of human traits, motives, emotions, or behaviors to nonhuman animals or inanimate objects.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion The theory that emotions arise from the perception of body changes.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis The view that expressing a specific emotion, especially facially, causes the subjective experience of that emotion.
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Schachter and Singer’s theory that emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal.
Cognitive-Meditational Theory of Emotion Lazarus’s theory that emotions result from the cognitive appraisal of a situation’s effect on personal well-being.
Self-Efficacy The degree to which a person is convinced of his or her ability to effectively meet the demand of a particular situation.
Walter Cannon (1871-1945) American psychologist who developed an influential theory of emotion called Cannon-Bard theory of emotion.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859.
Edward L Deci (b.1942) American psychologist who, along with Richard M. Ryan, developed self-determination theory, which contends that optimal psychological functioning and growth can only occur if the psychological needs of anatomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
Paul Ekman (b.1934) American psychologist and emotion researcher who is best known for his work in classifying basic emotions, analyzing facial expressions, and demonstrating the basic emotions and facial expressions are culturally universal.
William James (1842-1910) American psychologist who developed an influential theory of emotion called the James-Lange theory.
Richard Lazarus (1922-2002) American psychologist and founder of humanistic psychology who developed a hierarchical model of human motivation in which basic needs must first be satisfied before people can strive for self-actualization.
Richard M. Ryan (b.1953) American psychologist who, along with Edward L. Deci, developed self-determination theory, which contends that optimal psychological functioning and growth can only occur if the psychological needs of anatomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
Walter Cannon (1871-1945) American psychologist who developed an influential theory of emotion called Cannon-Bard theory of emotion.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859.
Edward L Deci (b.1942) American psychologist who, along with Richard M. Ryan, developed self-determination theory, which contends that optimal psychological functioning and growth can only occur if the psychological needs of anatomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
Paul Ekman (b.1934) American psychologist and emotion researcher who is best known for his work in classifying basic emotions, analyzing facial expressions, and demonstrating the basic emotions and facial expressions are culturally universal.
William James (1842-1910) American psychologist who developed an influential theory of emotion called the James-Lange theory.
Richard Lazarus (1922-2002) American psychologist and founder of humanistic psychology who developed a hierarchical model of human motivation in which basic needs must first be satisfied before people can strive for self-actualization.
Richard M. Ryan (b.1953) American psychologist who, along with Edward L. Deci, developed self-determination theory, which contends that optimal psychological functioning and growth can only occur if the psychological needs of anatomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
Created by: SaraMcKenzie