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SLS BIO12 dig. LM

TermDefinition
Absorption The process of absorbing or assimilating substances into cells or across the tissues and organs through diffusion or osmosis, as in absorption of nutrients by the digestive system,
Anaerobic Bacteria Bacteria that do not require oxygen
Anus The end of the digestive trast
Appendix Extending from the inferior end of the large intestine’s cecum, the human appendix is a narrow pouch of tissue whose resemblance to a worm inspired its alternate name, vermiform (worm-like) appendix.
Bile A bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats.
Capillary the smallest of a body's blood vessels and are parts of its microcirculation
Cardiac Sphincter the valve between the distal end of the esophagus and the stomach
Chemical Digestion the chemical breakdown of food into simpler compounds
Digestive Enzyme enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
Digestive Tract the stomach and intestine, sometimes including all the structures from the mouth to the anus
Duodenum the first part of the small intestine. located between the stomach and the middle part of the small intestine. After foods mix with stomach acid, they move into the duodenum, where they mix with bile from the gallbladder and digestive juices.
Emulsification the breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles. It is accomplished mainly by bile acids in the small intestine.
Epiglottis The epiglottis is a flap that is made of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx.
Esophagus a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.
Gall Bladder a small organ where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine.
Gastric Juice a digestive fluid, formed in the stomach. It has a pH of 1-2 and is composed of hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) a pH of 1-2
Insulin a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.
Intestinal Juice the clear to pale yellow watery secretions from the glands lining the small intestine walls
Lacteals Role of lacteals include absorbing emulsified fats and glycerol into the lymphatic system. Lacteals are little lymph capillary which are found in villi in the ileum
Large Intestine the last part of the digestive system in vertebrate animals. Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food
Lipase a protein (enzyme) released by the pancreas into the small intestine. It helps the body absorb fat
Liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Maltase an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide maltose
Microvillus ) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells,[1] and are involved in a wide variety of functions
nuclease Any enzyme that cleaves nucleic acids
Pancreas is a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.
Pancreatic Amylase Any of a group of enzymes that are present in saliva, pancreatic juice, and parts of plants and catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives.
Pancreatic Juice a liquid secreted by the pancreas, which contains a variety of enzymes, including trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, nucleases and amylase
Pepsin is an enzyme whose zymogen (pepsinogen) is released by the chief cells in the stomach and that degrades food proteins into peptides
Pepsinogen The inactive precursor to pepsin
Peptidase An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptides into amino acids.
Peristalsis the contraction of smooth muscle tissue to propel food/chyme through a digestive tract
pH a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Pharynx made up of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles;
Physical Digestion This involves breaking the food down into smaller pieces which are easier to move along your digestive tract
Protease any enzyme that performs proteolysis, that is, begins protein catabolism by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds that link amino acids together in the polypeptide chain forming the protein.
Pyloric Sphincter the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum
Rectum s the final straight portion of the large intestine
Salivary Amylase It is released by our salivary glands and is the most abundant enzyme in our saliva
Salivary Gland exocrine glands, glands with ducts, that produce saliva.
Salivary Juice a watery substance located in the mouths of organisms, secreted by the salivary glands
Small Intestine the part of the gastrointestinal tract following the stomach and followed by the large intestine,
Sodium Bicarbonate neutralizes chyme
Stomach a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestion system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract
Swallowing the process in the human or animal body that makes something pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis
Trypsin A pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins to form smaller polypeptide units.
Villus refers to any one of the small, finger-shaped outgrowths of the epithelial lining of the wall of the intestine
Created by: LMKay