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Chapter 10

chapter 10

nucleotides sugar, phosphate, and base
Adenine and Guanine Purines
Cytosine and Thymine Pyrimidine's
The process of copying DNA in a cell is called Replication
Structure of RNA repeating units
Differs from DNA sugar is ribose, thymine is not present, RNA is single stranded
Types of DNA? mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
Transcription process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA
Protein Synthesis the production of proteins
Genetic Code a correlation between a nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence
3 mRNA nucleotides codon
Start codon AUG
Stop codon UAA, UAG, UGA
Translation The process of assembling polypeptides from information encoded in mRNA
Anticodon the loop opposite of the site of amino acid attachment bears a sequence of three nucleotides
Ribosomes are composed of rRNA and proteins and are free in the cytoplasm and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
Double Helix bases face toward the center and face the base of other chains with which they form hydrogen bonds.
Deoxyribose five-carbon sugar in a DNA nucleotide
Nitrogenous base an organic base that contains nitrogen, and subunit of nucleotide in a DNA and RNA
Purine Nitrogenous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine.
Pyrimidine Nitrogenous bases that have a single ting of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as cytosine an thymine
base-paring rules the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with the thymine in DNA
Complementary base pairs cytosine on one strand pairs with guanine on the opposite strand, and thymine
base sequence The order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA
DNA replication is the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission.
Helicase An enzyme that separates DNA strands
Replication fork Y-shaped point that results when two strands of DNA
DNA polymerase An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA molecule
semi-conservative replication In each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new
Mutation A change in he nucleotide \-base sequence od a gene or DNA molecule
Created by: jerdy_99