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Biology Chapter 10

TermDefinition
Three parts of the DNA nucleotide Sugar, base, phosphate
What shape is DNA? double helix
What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What two scientists put together a model for DNA? James Watson and Francis Crick
What are the three types of RNA? mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
What letters are used to signify the nitrogen bases? Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine(C), and Thymine (T)
What did Watson and Crick win in 1962? Nobel Prize in Medicine
What are the complementary base pairs? C--G T--A
The process of copying DNA in a cell is called? replication
Enzymes called what bind to the separated chains of DNA? DNA polymerase
Original sequence of DNA ATTCCG
New nucleotide chain TAAGGC
Responsible for the movement of genetic info RNA
RNA consists of sugar (ribose), phosphate nitrogen containing baser
The process by which genetic info is copied from DNA to RNA Transcription
Products of transcription are called? Transcripts
What moves through the pores of the nuclear membrane into the cytosol? mRNA
The production of proteins? Protein synthesis
What determines the structure and function of the cell? Proteins
What are proteins made up of? polypeptides
How many amino acids are there? 20 amino acids
A correlation between a nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence? genetic code
3 mRNA nucleotides codon
The two types of codons Starter codon= AUG Stop codon= UAA, UAG, UGA
The process of assembling polypeptides from info encoded in mRNA is called Translation
Anticodon the loop opposite of the site of amino acid attachment bears a sequence of three nucleotides
Ribosomes composed of rRNA proteins
What has three binding sites that are key to translation? Ribosomes
tRNA transfer RNA
rRNA Ribosomal
Created by: Kaceyanne13