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Chapter 10

Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
Subunits of DNA Nucleotides
Parts of a nucleotide (3) Sugar, phosphate, base
Sugar present in DNA Deoxyribose
Phosphate present in DNA Phosphorous
Bases present in DNA (4) Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
Purines (2) Adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines (2) Cytosine and thymine
Scientists who suggested double helix model Watson and Crick
Award won by Watson and Crick 1962 Nobel Prize in Medicine
Complementary base pairs C-G, T-A
Replication Process of copying DNA
Helicases Enzymes that separate base pairs
DNA polymerase Enzymes that bind to the separated chains of DNA
Error rate in paired nucleotides 1 in 1 billion
Mutation Caused by a change in the nucleotide sequence
RNA Ribonucleic acid
Base not present in RNA Thymine
Base present only in RNA Uracil
Sugar present in RNA Ribose
Types of RNA (3) Messenger RNA (mRNA), Transfer RNA (tRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Shape of mRNA Single uncoiled chain
Shape of tRNA Hairpin shape
Shape of rRNA Globular form
Most abundant form of RNA rRNA
Purpose of mRNA Carries genetic info from DNA in the nucleus to the cytosol
Purpose of tRNA Binds to specific amino acids
Purpose of rRNA Makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made
Number of varieties of tRNA 45
Protein synthesis Production of proteins
Number of amino acids 20
Genetic code Correlation between a nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence
Codon 3 mRNA nucleotides
Translation Process of assembling polypeptides from information encoded in mRNA
Anticodon 3 tRNA nucleotides; pairs with the mRNA codon
Ribosomes Composed of rRNA and proteins
Location of ribosomes Free in the cytoplasm and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
Created by: animalcrossing