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4th 6-weeks

Genetics, Evolution and Taxonomy

Dominant An allele that is able to mask or hide another allele. Represented by a capital letter (i.e. R, T, S)
Recessive An allele that is hidden by another allele. Represented by a lowercase letter(i.e. r, t, s)
Incomplete Dominance When two different phenotypes combine to form a new phenotype. (i.e. Red and White flowers breed to form Pink)
Codominance When two different phenotypes combine and both traits are present (i.e. speckled, striped, or spotted)
Heterozygous A gene that contains two different alleles(i.e. Rr)
Homozygous A gene that contains two of the same allele (i.e. RR or rr)
Allele A version of a trait/gene (R or r). One is inherited from each parent.
Natural Selection A gradual process in which favorable traits are passed on from generation to generation to ensure survival and reproductive success of the species.
Adaptations A trait of an organism that is functional to the organism and is obtained through natural selection.
Genetic Drift A change in population due to a random event.
Gene Flow A change in a population due to migration (movement) of individuals into and out of the population.
Offspring The product of reproduction for two parents. (i.e. children)
Genotype The genetic makeup of a particular characteristic in an organism.
Phenotype The physical appearance of a particular characteristic in an organism.
Ancestor A parent, grandparent, great grandparent etc. Anyone from whom an organism has inherited traits.
Descendant A child, grandchild, great grandchild etc. Anyone whom an organism has contributed traits to.
Common Ancestry When two or more organisms have similar inherited traits derived from a single organism.
Homology Similarities among organisms due to common ancestry.
Fossil The preserved remains of a dead organism. (bones, molds, casts, teeth)
Survive To remain alive. Important for the species as a whole.
Reproduce The ability to create offspring. Important for the species as a whole.
Gene Frequency The percentage of a certain allele within a population (i.e. how many blond, brown, or red hair alleles)
Taxonomy A classification system for all living organisms based on shared characteristics.
Dichotomous Key A key designed to help classify organisms by giving a set of sorting options that result in the name of the organism.
Species The basic unit of taxonomic groups. Members within a species are able to breed and produce offspring.
Embryo An unborn or unhatched offspring that is still developing.
Cladogram A diagram used to show the relationships between organisms. Similar to a family tree.
Created by: ehokkanen