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OCHS Bio - Unit 3

Unit 3 - Membrane Transport

Vocab WordAnswer (from textbook)Anchor/Helper Phrase
phospholipid bilayer another name for the cell membrane lipid sandwich (2 layers of lipids)
phospholipid the molecule that makes up the majority of the cell membrane has a polar head (hydrophillic) and nonpolar tails (hydrophobic)
fluid mosaic model a model used to describe the movement of molecules within a cell membrane proteins floating in a lipid lake; the membrane is not a hard shell
concentration the amount of a solute dissolved in a given volume of water Can be high, or low (diluted); the amount of stuff dissolved in liquid
selective permeability property of biological membranes that allows some substances to pass across it while others cannot also called "semipermeable"
passive transport movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration H --> L; pushing something down the hill
diffusion process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated high to low, no energy needed; oxygen and carbon dioxide move across the membrane this way across the membrane
equilibrium when the concentration of a substance on each side of the membrane is the same things move through a membrane until they reach this point
osmosis diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane H 2 O(smosis)
hypotonic solution when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lower concentration of solutes example: pure water: cells swell or pop
hypertonic solution when comparing two solutions. the solution with the higher concentration of solutes example: really salty water; cells shrivel up
isotonic solution when the concentration of two solutions is the same example: saline solution; cells stay the same
facilitated diffusion process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through protein channels still a type of diffusion (high to low, no energy needed); bigger molecules or charged molecules (like water) move this way
active transport movement of a substance from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy L --> H; pushing something up the hill; lots of ions move this way across the membrane
endocytosis when cells take in very large amounts of water or food example: an amoeba or white blood cell engulfing a smaller cell
exocytosis when cells remove very large amounts of water or waste example: a cell pumping a huge amount of water out all at once
cholesterol a molecule found between phospholipids in the cell membrane; makes the membrane less fluid and more rigid membrane "stiffiner"
channel protein a protein that allows larger or charged moleucles to pass through the cell membrane makes facilitated diffusion possible; kind of like a "door" into the cell
cell membrane thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell ALL cells have membranes (no exceptions); NOT the same as a cell wall
Created by: nickbudz