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DNA & Biotechnology (Ch. 13-16)

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
nucleotide nucleic acid chain, a subunit that has a sugar, phosphate and base. There are 4 different bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. (AT & CG are complementary pairs and the fit together like a puzzle piece in DNA)
replication the duplication of a DNA molecule
mutation a change in the genetic material of an organism
RNA ribonucleic acid, molecule present in all living cells that help produce protein. There are 4 different bases: adenine, uracil, cytosine and guanine. (AU & CG are complementary pairs and the fit together like a puzzle piece in RNA)
ribosome cell organelle made up of RNA and protein
biotechnology the use and application of living things and biological processes
artifical selection human practice of breeding animals or plants with desired traits
genetic engineering a technology in which the genome of a living cell is modified for medical or industrial use
clone an organism, cell, or piece of genetic material that is genetically identical
bacteriophage a virus that infects a bacteria
messenger RNA (mRNA); carry copies of instructions to assemble amino acids into protein from the nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm
ribosomal RNA (rRNA); as many as 80 proteins that assemble on the ribosome
transfer RNA (tRNA); carry amino acid to the ribosome and match them to the coded mRNA
transcription the process of copying a base sequence from DNA to RNA
polypeptide a chain of protein formed by joining amino acids
codon three consecutive bases that specify an amino acid
translation decoding of an mRNA message into a protein
genome full set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA
karyotype image of chromosomes in pairs by size (diploid)
sex chromosome chromosome that determines gender
autosomes chromosomes that do not include the sex chromosomes
sex linked gene genes that are passed on through the X or Y chromosomes
pedigree a chart that shows the presence or absence within a family
selective breeding allowing only animals with wanted characteristics to produce the next generation
inbreeding breeding individuals with similar characteristics
hybridization cross of dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
transgenic contain genes from other species
Created by: dsookdeo
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