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Blood and the Heart

Circulatory System and Tissues

What is the difference between a closed circulatory system and an open circulatory system? In a closed system the blood never leaves the blood vessels, materials simply diffuse in and out of them. In an open system the blood leaves the blood vessels and flows freely over the cells.
What are the 4 components of blood? Plasma, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets
What is plasma? Plasma is the liquid part of blood, it is 90% water. It is yellow is colour and carries glucose, amino acids, minerals vitamins, salts, carbon dioxide, urea and hormones.
What is the function of red blood cells? What adaptations do they have to carry out this function? Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout our body. They contain the chemical haemoglobin. They have lost their nucleus and have a bi-concave shape to allow them to carry more haemoglobin.
What are the 2 main types of white blood cells? What is their main function. White blood cells are used to fight infection. There are 2 types: Lymphocytes who produce proteins called antibodies. Monocytes which contain a large nucleus and engulf pathogens in a process called phagocytosis.
What is the function of platelets? What condition occurs when platelets are not functioning correctly? Platelets form blood clots to prevent blood loss and stop pathogens entering our bodies. An inability to clot blood is known an haemophilia.
What are the 4 major blood groups named? We use the ABO system to classify blood types. The presence or absence of the rhesus factor makes them positive or negative.
What is the universal donor and the universal acceptor? O- is known as the universal donor as it does not contain any antigens that would trigger a reaction in another person. AB+ is known as the universal acceptor as it already has all the known antigens present.
What are the left and right hand sides of the heart called? The left side is called the systemic side as it pumps blood all around the body (to our organ systems). The right side is called the pulmonary side as it pumps blood to our lungs.
What are the main blood vessels in the heart? Superior./Inferior Vena Cava, Pulmonary Artery, Aorta and Pulmonary Vein.
What blood vessels supplies the heart itself with blood? The coronary arterys which are a branch of the aorta.
Where would you find the bicuspid and tricuspid valves? What is the function of valves? The bicuspid valve is found in the left side of the heart and the tricuspid is found in the right side. Valves prevent the backflow of blood.
What do we call the wall of muscle that divides the heart in 2? The septum
Differences between arteries and veins? 1: Arteries bring blood away from the heart, veins to. 2: Arteries are under high pressure, veins are under low pressure. 3: Arteries have a thick wall, veins have a thin wall. 4: Veins have valves, arteries do not.
What type of blood is carried in arteries and veins? Arteries carry oxygenated blood, except for the pulmonary artery. Veins carry deoxygenated blood except for the pulmonary vein.
Why are arteries found deep in our tissue and veins near the surface? Veins are near the surface to help us regulate our body temperature. When we are hot the veins dilate and release heat through our skin. When cold they contract to keep heat in. Arteries must be protected as they are under such high pressure.
What are the correct name of the pacemakers in the heart, where are they located? The Sino Atrial node is found in the right atrium, between the vena cava and the pulmonary artery. The Atrio Ventricular node is found in the right ventricle, just below the tricuspid valve.
What are the 3 phases of the heartbeat? What happens in each? Atrial Diastole:The atria fill with blood.All valves are closed. 2: Atrial Systole: Both atria contract sending blood into the ventricles. 3: Ventricle Systole: The ventricles not contract sending blood out of the heart and opening up the atriums. Repeat
What apparatus is used to measure blood pressure? What does blood pressure tell us? Blood pressure is measured using a sphygmomanometer. It tells us the pressure the blood is under when the heart is contracting and relaxing. Our pulse is caused by the contractions of the heart passing along the elastic walls of the arteries. 120/80
How does an unhealthy lifestyle affect our heart? High fat diets can block our arteries. High salt diet can increase blood pressure. Nicotine raises blood pressure and is addictive. The carbon monoxide released by cigarettes reduces the amount of oxygen in our blood.
How do we find our resting heart rate? What is the relationship between heart rate and fitness? We find our pulse and count the beats for a minute. Do this 3 times and calculate the average. Exercise for 10 minutes. The quicker the heart rate returns to normal the fitter a person is.
Created by: cbsbiology