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Cell Division

Mitosis and Meiosis

QuestionAnswer
What is the duration of a cells life know as? The cell cycle
What is interphase? Interphase is the time between one cell division and the next.
What is a genome? A genome is all the genes in an organism.
What is a gene? A gene is a short section of DNA which contains instructions for the formation of a certain protein.
What is the difference between haploid and diploid A haploid cell contains one set of chromosomes, its symbol is n. A diploid cell contains two sets of chromosomes, its symbol is 2n.
What is the diploid number in humans? 2n = 46
What are the main difference between meiosis and mitosis? In meiosis one cell splits into 4 haploid cells. Meiosis is used to produce gametes. In mitosis one cell splits into 2 diploid cells. Mitosis is used for growth and reproduction of most of our cells.
What happens during interphase? During interphase the cell produces new organelles and chemicals that will be needed by the new cell. The chromosomes make copies of themselves in a process called duplication.
What are the identical sets of chromosomes produced during duplication called? Homologous pairs.
Definition of Mitosis? Mitosis is a form of cell division in which the nucleus divides to form 2 new nuclei, each containing the same number of chromosomes.
What are the 4 stages of Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase and Telophase
What are somatic cells Cells that are not associated with reproduction
What are the main events of prohase? The chromatins shorten and thicken to form visible chromosomes held together by a centromere. The nuclear membrane dissolves and the nucleolus disappears. Spindles appear in the cell and produce threads made from protein called spindle fibres
What are the main events of metaphase? The nuclear membrane has completely dissolved. The spindles have migrated to the poles of the cell and a spindle fibre from each one attaches itself to the centromeres, lining the chromosomes up on the equator of the cell.
What are the main events of anaphase? Spindle fibres contract causing the centromeres to split.One strand from each chromosome is pulled to the opposite poles of the cell. Anaphase is the shortest phase of mitosis. It only takes a few minutes. The other phases can take up to 30 minutes
What are the main events of telophase? The chromosomes now begin to unravel and lengthen turning back into chromatins. The spindle fibres dissolve. The nucleolus reforms. The nuclear membrane forms around the chromatins leaving an identical nuclei in each end of the cell.
What is cytokenesis? Cytokenisis is the splitting of the cell into 2 new cells.
What does cytokenesis differ in plant and animal cells? Plants cells require a new cell wall to be built by vessicles. These build a structure called the cell plate. This gets bigger and bigger until a new cell wall is formed. In animal cells a cleavage furrow appears and the cytoplasm simply splits in 2.
What are the functions of mitosis? In single celled organisms mitosis is used for asexual reproduction. In multicellular organisms it is used for growth and repair of damaged cells.
What is cancer? Cancer occurs when a group of cells lose the ability to control the rate of mitosis and the number of times mitosis takes place. They form a mass of unspecialised cells called a tumor.
What are the 2 types of tumor? Benign and malignant. Benign tumors do not move around the body and stop reproducing after a period of time. Malignant tumors can move around the body (metastasis) and do not stop reproducing. They are said to be immortal.
What are the main causes of cancer? Cancer is caused when normal genes are changed to cancer causing genes called oncogenes. This is brought about by the presence of carcinogens like cigarette smoke, asbestos, UV light and other chemicals.
Created by: cbsbiology