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Mammal bones

Mammalian bones

cervical vertebrae Neck vertebrae, 1st: atlas, 2nd: axis
thoracic vertebrae articulate with ribs
rib sternum in front of ribs, costal ribs posterior, free ribs not connect in posterior
lumbar vertebrae posterior-thoracic
sacral vertebrae articulate with pelvic girdle
caudal vertebrae tail
baculum penis bone
pectoral girdle (forelimb) pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle), scapula shoulder blade, scapular spine, clavicle, coracoid (rudimentary and fused with scapula)
humerus ball-in-socket with scapula
radius shorter than ulna, joint with humerus=elbow
ulna extends farther back into joint with humerus=elbow
carpals wrist bones
metacarpals elongated and after carpals, 5
phalanges extend from distal end of each metacarpal, 1st: pollex/thumb
pelvic limb hip girdle/ pelvic girdle
dorsal ilia articulated with sacral vertebrae
ischia directed posteriorly and forms bony part of rump
pubic bones project anteriorly and posteriorly and joined at distal ends, pubic symphysis: junction between pubic bones
acetabulum where 3 pelvic bones meet: socket with head of femur
femur thigh bone articulates with acetabulum
fibula greatly reduced compared to tibia
tibia more medial and larger than fibula
knee bends project distal segments posteriorly, patella: kneecap develops in tendon on anterior side of joint
tarsal bones ankle, part of hind foot (pes), calcaneum (largest, heel bone) attachment of Achilles tendon, astragalus (large and adjacent and medial to calcaneum)
metatarsal bones 5 elongate, part of hind foot (pes)
phalanges from metatarsal, pedal digits (toes): hallus (1st most medial) made of 2 phalanges, other digits 3 phalanges, part of hind foot (pes)
Claws keratinized epidermal cells, dorsal scale-like plate: unguis, ventral plate: subunguis (continuous with pad at end of digit)
nail modified claw covers only dorsal surface of end of digit
hoof in ungulates, pad just behind hoof: frog
Created by: jebeard