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DNA and Replication

Chapter 12

QuestionAnswer
What type of molecule is DNA? organic
What is DNA made up of? carbon
What macromolecule is DNA? nucleic acid
Where is DNA located? in the nucleus; in the chromosomes
What does DNA stand for? deoxyribose nucleic acid
What are the functions of DNA? hereditary instructions; chemical code for every trait; "blueprint" for making proteins
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids? nucleotides
What three parts make up DNA? phosphate groups, deoxyribose, nitrogen bases
What are the nitrogen bases that are in DNA? adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine i
What is the shape of DNA? ladder, double helix
What does Watson and Crick's DNA model loock Slides Rotate: sugar, phosphate, sugar, phosphate Rungs: Attached to sugar
What is the complimentary base for thymine? adenine
What is the complementary base for guanine? cytosine
what is the complementary base for thymine? adenine
What is the complementary base for cytosine? guanine
What first has to happen during DNA replication? DNA untwists
What do enzymes do to DNA so it can replicate? unzip them
What happens after the DNA is unzipped? DNA polymerase creates corresponding base pairs
After the DNA polymerase creates corresponding base pairs what happens to the DNA it reforms;2 strands twist into helix
What results from DNA replication 2 identical strands
What is the name of the process where DNA copies itself? interphase
Name the three parts of a DNA nucleotide phosphate groups, deoxyribose sugar, nitrogen bases
What happens during DNA replication? chromosomes double
When does DNA replication occur and what stage of this? mitosis, interphase(S phase)
what happens to the Diploid number when Mitosis occurs? 2n to 4n
What two pieces of a nubleotide alternate as the backbone of DNA? Phosphate groups and deoxyribose
Of what are the DNA rungs comprised? nitrogen bases
What is produced from replication? 2 identical strands
Which nitrogen bases are pyrimidine? thymine, cytosine, and uracil
Which nitrogen bases are purine? adenine and guanine
What are the three types of RNA? messenger RNA, Ribosomal, and transfer
What is the function of mRNA? carry instructions
What is the function of ribosomal rna combines with proteins
What is the function of transfer RNA brings amino acids to ribosome
Where does mRNA perform its function(how)? it carries instructions from DNA to the ribosome
Why does ribosomal RNA combine with proteins? to make up ribosome
What are the two stages of protein synthesis? transcription and translation
Where does transcription occur? in the nucleus
Where does translation occur? in the ribosome
What happens during transcription? mRNA retrieves DNA message to make proteins
what happens during translation?
What does RNA stand for? ribonucleic acid
What type or molecule is RNA and what is it made of? organic molecule-made of carbon
What type of macromolecule is RNA? nucleic acid
That are the three types of RNA? transfer, messenger and ribosomal
What is different about the structure of DNA vs. the structure of RNA? DNA is double-stranded; RNA is a single strand
What is different about the type of sugar in DNA and RNA? DNA has deoxyribose sugar, RNA has ribose sugar
What is different about the nitrogen bases in DNA versus RNA? Uracil replaces thymine in RNA
What is different between DNA and RNA/size? DNA is a very large molecule, RNA is a small molecule
What is produced from DNA during transcription. mRNA
Where does transcription? mucleus
What are the three steps to transcription? DNA untwists, DNA unzips, and mRNA codons line up
What is a codon 3 nitrogen bases on mRNA
If there are 9 nitrogen bases in a DNA strand, how many codons are there? 3
RNA has what instead of thymine? uracil
What molecule provides instructions to make proteins tRNA
What type of RNA receives a copy of the instructions to make proteins? mRNA
What base replaces thymine in RNA? Uracil
What is the mRNA base for the DNA base adenine? uracil
What is translation conversion of the message (mRNA code)
Translation converts a message into what? a protein
Where does translation occur? in the ribosome
What is a polypeptide? a chain of amino acids
What happens during translation? mRNA arrives at ribosome, tRNA picks up AA and delivers it to the ribosome
What are the three types of RNA? ribosomal, messenger and transfer
When the anticodon for tRNA arrives at the ribosome, what does tRNA deliver amino acids
What is always the start codon aug
What are the jobs or RNA polymerase? unzips DNA
Every protein in the body starts with what? AUG
What does transfer RNA transfer? amino acids
What does the mRNA attach to? ribosome
Where does translation begin? at AUG start codon
tRNA anticodons match to what ? mRNA codons
Why does tRNA carry amino acids to build proteins
What does the ribosome join during translation? amino acids
What happens to the tRNA during translation? it breaks away
During translation, the ribosome does what after joining amino acids? moves along mRNA and continues to bind amino acids
What codon completes the polypeptide? the STOP codon
What process produces four genetically different cells? meiosis
List the three parts of a DNA nucleotide? deoxyribose, nitrogen bases, and phostphate groupds
Which RNA;s are involved in protein synthesis? tRNA and mRna
What are the two products of photosynthesis? oxygen and high energy sugars
How many codons are needed for three amino acids? 3
Cells of eukaryotes perform certain functions because of gene regulation. What is this called? cell spcialization
what is the building block of a starch? simple sugar
What are the building blocks or RNA? ribose sugar, nitrogen bases, and phophate groups
What type of cell lacks a nucleus? prokaryote
If a parent cell has 8 chromosomes, how many will its daughter cells contain after mitosis? 4
What process copies DNA? DNA replication
What sugar does RNA contain ribose
What do genes contain instructions to make? proteins
The cell uses information from mRNA to make proteins during what stage? transcription
Why can an amino acid be specified by more than one codon? more codons that amino acids
What is a mutation involving as single nucleotide called? point mutation
Which type of mutation is never a frameshift? single substitution
What is produced from transcription? mRNA?
What base does RNA contain that is missing in DNA? uracil
What principle states that genes for different traits separate without influencing each other independent assortment
Which structure serves as the cell's boundary from the environment? membrane
What is the start sie for RNA polymerase called? Promoter
What has one allele of each gene? gametes
If a DNA strand has the following bases: GCATTA, what would it produce after replication? CGTAAT
Created by: 3j0mk1