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earth science

Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
Argon 0.93%
Carbon Dioxide 0.038%
Water Vapor 0.0-4.0%
Trace Gases 0.01%
Nitrogen and Oxygen levels don’t change
Carbon dioxide and water vapor can change
The increase of Carbon dioxide is due to the burning of fossil fuels.
Water vapor changes because of location and seasons.
Oxygen is O2.
Ozone is O3.
The Ozone layer blocks harmful layers.
Dust, salt, and ice are the solids found in the atmosphere.
troposphere It is the layer closest to the Earth.
It has the most mass. The temperature decreases the higher you go.
The tropopause is where the temperature stops decreases. Where the weather occurs.
stratosphere It is the second layer from Earth’s surface. Temperature increases as you go up. It contains the Ozone layer.
Stratopause is where the temperature stops increasing. mesosphere It is the third layer above Earth’s surface. (Middle layer) Temperature decreases as you go up. Meteor showers occur in this layer. Mesopause where the temperature stops decreasing.. thermosphere The fourth layer above the Earth’s surface. The temperature increase while you go up. It contains the ionosphere. exosphere
Temperature if particles have more kinetic energy when they are moving faster, so the higher the temperature of material, the faster the particles are moving.
Fahrenheit when water freezes 32 degrees when water starts boiling 212
Celsius when water freezes at 0 c and water boils at 100 c
Kelvin is when water freezes at 273 k and water boils at 373 k.
Air pressure is measured in millibars (mb)
The density and pressure of the layers of the atmosphere decrease as altitude increases
If the temperature increases, but density is constant, the pressure increases
A temperature inversion is an increase in temperature with height
Temperature inversion causes fog
Wind In the lower atmosphere, air generally moves from regions of higher density and pressure to regions of lower density and pressure.
Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor that air can hold at a certain temperature
Relative humidity is always given as a percent
Dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation
Latent heat the extra thermal energy contained in water vapor compared to liquid water
As warm air mass rises it expands and cools.
The cooling of an air mass as it rises can cause water vapor in the air mass to condense.
Condensation nucleus forms a small particle in the atmosphere around which water droplets can form, and when a number comes together a cloud forms.
Orographic lifting occurs when an air mass is forced to rise over a topographic barrier.
Like a mountain and it causes clouds to form.
Clouds are generally classified by the altitudes at which they form and by their shapes.
Low Clouds they are usually occur be 2000m.
Cumulus clouds are puffy.
Stratus clouds are blanket like clouds. Middle clouds are between 2000 and 6000m.
Middle clouds are between 2000 and 6000m.
Autocumulus clouds are made up of ice crystals and water droplets.
Altostratus clouds
High Clouds are found heights over 6000m, and they are made up from ice because the temperature is freezing.
Cirrus clouds and they are wispy.
Vertical development clouds can reach heights of 18,000m.
Cumulonimbus they can bring storms.
The taller they are the worse the storm is.
Precipitation is water that falls from the clouds they are rain, snow, sleet, and hail.
Coalescence occurs when cloud droplets collide and join together to form a larger droplet.
Explain the difference between stable and unstable air.
When an air mass sinks back to its original position and resists rising, it is considered stable.
Stable air has a tendency to resist movement. Unstable air does not resist vertical displacement.
Compare/Contrast low, middle, high, and vertical development clouds.
Explain how precipitation forms.
Created by: katherine graves