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Principles of Pharm

Principles of Pharmacology

Science dealing with the preparation, uses, and effects of drugs. Pharmacology
First phase of drug action. Includes dissolution of drugs taken by mouth. Pharmaceutic Phase
Study of the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs in a living organism. Pharmacokinetics
Study of the biochemical and physical effects of drugs; mechanisms of drug actions. Study of drug concentration and its effects on the body. Pharmacodynamics
Effect of the drug action that varies from a predicted drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influence. Pharmacogenetics
General term covering the use of drugs in the prevention and treatment of disease. "Clinical application"- how a drug is used clinically. Pharmacotherapeutics
Natural drugs. Drugs found in plants, animals, minerals, or their products. Naturally occurring drugs may have chemical structure changed in lab to increase drug's effectiveness. Pharmacognasy
Study of poisons and other drugs Toxicology
Pharmacologic agent capable of interacting with living organisms to produce biological effects. Drug/Medication
Can only be used safely under the supervision of health care professional licensed to prescribe drugs. Prescription Drug
OTC. Used by consumers without supervision of licensed professional. Must follow directions! Nonprescription Drug
Controlled by federal, state, and local laws because drug can lead to dependance or abuse. Controlled Drug
Self-directed use of drugs for nontherapeutic purposes. Doesn't comply with sociocultural norms. Drug Abuse
Person is unable to control drug intake. Can be physical, psychological, or both. Drug Dependance
Improper use of drugs. Can lead to GI bleeding, kidney or liver damage. Drug Misuse
Used only for pleasant physiological or psychological effects. No therapeutic use. Recreational Drug
Drug nomenclature is the ________ of the drug Naming
What name describes the atomic and molecular structure of drugs? Chemical Name
What name is the "Official name" of drugs? Derived from the chemical name, but usually shorter. Assigned by the United States Adopted Names Council. Generic Name
Name given to the drug by a drug company. This name is copyrighted, registered, and limited to that manufacturer for its use. "Registered Trade Mark" Trade Name
Families of drugs which share similar characteristics. Pharmacologic Class
Drugs grouped by their therapeutic uses. Therapeutic Classifications
Chooses a representative drug for each class. Frequently used for teaching. Must remember that this drug is only representative, and there are normal variations among each drug. Prototype
Who monitors tests with animals which determine the drug's use, dosage, and possible side effects? Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
What phase of IND? Clinical pharmacologist supervises studies involving small numbers of healthy volunteers, and all effects recorded. Some subjects may be paid. Phase I
What phase of IND? Small number of people diagnosed with disease for which drug is therapeutic. Adverse effects recorded to determine dosage. Data compared with human and animal studies. Effects on human and animal fertility and reproduction monitored. Phase II
What phase of IND? Large number of patients receive drug. Some patients may receive placebo. Phase III
What phase of IND? Drug company must communicate with FDA regarding all reports of therapeutic or adverse effects of drug. Drug may be withdrawn from market after initial release. Phase IV
For what condition may a few drugs receive expedited FDA approval? AIDS
Drugs which never make it to the marker because they cost to much to develop, has limited marker for rare disease, and/or has high risk of adverse effects. Orphan Drugs
Companies may apply for tax credits to develop these drugs as a result of litigation passed in 1983. Orphan drugs
Legislated in 1970. Designed to remedy escalating drug problem. Controlled Substances Act
What Schedule? For the purposes of research only. High abuse potential. No medical use in USA. Unacceptable dangers. Requires clearance from FDA to obtain drug. Schedule I
What Schedule? Requires written prescription. In emergency, licensed health care professional may order over phone. No phone renewals. High abuse potential, but has therapeutic use. Can lead to dependance. Schedule II
What Schedule? Prescription must be rewritten after 6 months or 5 refills. May be prescribed over phone. Lower abuse potential. Acceptable therapeutic use. Abuse may lead to low to moderate dependance. Schedule III
Prescription must be rewritten after 6 months or 5 refills. Low abuse potential. Has acceptable therapeutic uses. Schedule IV
Dispensed as any other prescription drug. Low abuse potential and has acceptable therapeutic uses. Abuse leads to limited physical or psychological dependance. Schedule V
In 1906 designated United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary as official standards for drugs. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
In 1914 classified certain drugs as habit-forming narcotics and placed regulations on the importation, manufacture, and sale of these drugs. First narcotic control legislation passed by any nation. Harrison Narcotic Act
Amendment to 1906 legislation required labeling of package contents to include what? Statement describing contents and name of drug. Concentration of drug (i.e. alcohol). Warning for habit forming drugs and their effects. Name of manufacturer. Directions for use and warning against unsafe use.
Enforced by federal government to ensure uniform quality of drugs. Drug Standards
Uncontaminated states of drug. Standards specify the type and amount of extraneous materials acceptable in the drug. Purity
Degree to which drug is absorbed and transported to target site in the body. Can differ among manufacturers. Bioavailability
Power to produce the desired effect. Standards set by testing lab animals to determine definite measurable effects. Potency
Effectiveness of drug treatment. Determined by clinical trials. Max therapeutic effect a drug can offer. Efficacy
Determined by reported adverse drug reactions. Standards are constantly being refined. Safety and Toxicity
Drug's progress from pharmaceutical dosage to substance that can pass through or across tissues. Drug Absorption
Type of Formulation: Most frequently dispensed. Has thin coating to decrease dust during oral administration. May be scored. Usually absorbed in the stomach. Compressed Tablet
Type of Formulation: Provides safe and effective drug absorption through entire GI tract. May have enteric coating to protect it from stomach acids. May be capsule with beads inside. Should never be opened or crushed. Sustained-Release
Type of Formulation: Form of sustained-release. Tablet has two shells. Initial dose is carried in the outer shell. Second within the inner shell. Repeat-Action Tablets
Ingredients which are present in most tablets and capsules to help bind the tablet, increase size, or enhance disintegration in the stomach or small intestine. Inert Ingredients
If formula is cloudy or thick, do not inject it into __________. Vein
Keep on going! Don't quit now! You're doing great!
Method of Absorption: drug moves from area of higher concentration to lower concentration. Passive
Method of Absorption: requires cellular energy to move drug from an area of lower concentration to higher concentration. Active transport
Most drugs are absorbed in the ____________. Small Intestine
IM drugs are absorbed more quickly in what muscle? Deltoid
Food stimulates circulation to the GI tract and may ___________absorption of oral medications. Enhance
Does strenuous exercise enhance or slow drug absorption? Slow
Pain and stress can ________ the total amount of drug absorbed. Decrease
What is this process called? Oral drugs absorbed from intestine, pass through portal vein, and into liver before passing into circulation. First-Pass Effect
What is this process called? Drugs absorbed by GI tract, travel to liver, excreted in bile, and eventually return to intestine, then reabsorbed into bloodstream. Enterohepatic Recycling
Fat soluble drugs can penetrate _________. Water soluble drugs cannot. Lipoid Cells
Where are drugs absorbed the fastest? Sublingually
Process by which drug is carried from site of absorption to site of action. Drug Distribution
Body's ability to change drug biologically from its dosage or parent form to a more water-soluble form. Drug Metabolism/Biotransformation
Drugs are usually metabolized in the _________ and excreted by the __________. Liver; Kidneys
Time required for total amount of drug to decrease by 1/2. Half-Life
Most drugs are essentially eliminated from the body after ______ half-lives. 5
Refers to the removal of a drug from the body. Drug Clearance
Refers to time in which a drug is absorbed, reached effective blood level, is distributed to the site of action, and elicits a therapeutic response. Onset
As more drug reaches the site of action, an increase in therapeutic response occurs. This is known as what? Peak
Length of time a drug concentration is sufficient to produce a therapeutic effect. Duration
Interactions at the cellular level between a drug and cellular components. Drug Action
Response resulting from a drug action. Drug Effect
What two ways may a drug alter a target cell? Modify cell environment and modify cell's function
Drug displays an affinity for a receptor, then enhances or stimulates the functional properties of the receptor. Agonist
Drug which prevents a response from occurring. Competes with agonist for receptor site by occupying the receptor, thereby preventing action of the agonist. Antagonist
Relationship between a drug's desired therapeutic effects and adverse effects. Therapeutic Index
Type of Drug Therapy: Intensive drug therapy used for acutely ill. Acute
Drug therapy prescribed on practical experience vs. pure scientific data. Empiric
Type of Drug Therapy: Doesn't treat cause of the disease, but maintains other threatened body systems until condition resolves. Supportive
Type of Drug Therapy: Goal is to make patient as comfortable as possible, not to treat the disease. Palliative
Type of Drug Therapy: Used to treat chronic conditions which do not resolve. Goal is to prevent further progression of the disease. Maintenance Therapy
Type of Drug Therapy: Can be short or long term. Examples include vitamins, minerals Supplemental
The ________ of drug therapy should always outweigh the _________. Benefits; Risks
What are three factors that influence choice of therapy? Risk vs. Benefit Patient Compliance Cost
What are four main factors that can alter drug response? Age Genetics Sex Body Fluid
Drug Interaction: Occurs when two drugs with similar actions are taken together. Effect is the sum of the effect of the two drugs. Additive Effect
Drug Interaction: 2 drugs with different sites or mechanisms of action produce greater effects when taken together. Synergistic/Potentiation
Drug Interaction: When given together, may cause adverse or toxic effects. Interference
Drug Interaction: Increases effect of drug when it is displaced from tissue binding sites and drug is now in free state. Displacement
Created by: mreedy