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Cox-1 and Cox-2

Adverse effects to _____________ include hypoglycemia, hepatotoxicity, cyanosis, and vascular collapse Tylenol
The ability of a substance to cause abnormal fetal development when given to a pregnant woman is called___________. Teratogenicity
Enzymes present in the brain, bones, kidneys, GI Tract, and female reproductive system Cox-2
Rezatripan is a Cox -2 __________receptor antagonist. 5-HT1
Studies in pregnant women show abnormalities of the fetus, but benefits may outweigh the risk Category D
Animal studies = Adverse effects. No studies on humans OR neither animal or human studies done Category C
Category shows harm to fetus in animals and women. Contraindicated pregnant women Category X
Animal studies= no harm to fetus. No human study OR adverse on animals but none on humans Category B
Category: studies on humans=no adverse effects Category A
Tinnitus, diarrhea, decreased visual acuity, and, confusion are signs and symptoms of ________ Mild toxicity
Reactions not known from pharmacological properties but are peculiar to patient Idiosyncratic response
Highly protein-bound and can interact with other protein-bound drugs Selective Cox-2
Can interact with other protein-bound drugs and displace them from their sites Salicylates
Enzymes responsible for prostaglandin formation Cyclooxygenase Enxymes
Acetaminophen is in what type of drug? Para-Aminophenol Derivative
Pain, nausea, and sensitivity to light are symptoms of ___________. Migraine
Drugs given to elderly may produce _________at usual doses. Toxicity
Total body mass and total body water _________with age Decrease
Infants may metabolize drugs inefficiently due to immature ____________. Liver
Piroxicam is what type of drug? NSAID
Topical medications are absorbed more completely by children because of a child's greater_________relative to ___________. Body surface area; Total body mass
What chemical mediator increases capillary permeability and the sensation of pain? Kinins
What agents are used to inhibit the synthesis of uric acid? Antigout agents
Elderly use _____% of all Rx drugs and _____% of all non-Rx drugs. 30%; 40%
Elderly are ____to____times more likely to experience adverse drug reactions 2 to 7
Results from drug-induced alteration in cellular DNA and ability of a substance to cause cancer is called what? Carcinogenicity
DOC for fever of common cold or flu. Effects last for life of platelet. Salicylates
What type of drug is ibuprofen? NSAID
Selective Cox-2 inhibitor drugs have been associated with higher risk of ______and______. CVA and MI
DOC for flu-like symptoms in children. May be beneficial in osteoarthritis. Tylenol
What is the peak and duration of Para-Aminophenol Derivative? Peak 10-60 min Duration 3-5h
Meclofenamate is what type of drug? NSAID
Almotriptan is what type of Cox-2 drug? 5-HT1
Flurbiprofen is what type of drug? NSAID
What are 3 chemical mediators that trigger a vascular response and migration of fluid and cells to the injured site? Histamines, Kinins, Prostaglandins
Prevents or decreases tissue changes of chronic gout. NOT effective in acute gout. Sulfinpyrazone-Anturane
ASA is what type of drug? It inhibits what? Salicylate; Cox-1 and 2
NOT effective in acute gout. Can prevent hypeuricemia associated with chronic gout. Probenecid- Benemid
Increases urinary excretion of uric acid. Probenecid- Benemid
Cox-1, Cox-2, or both? Absorbed in the GI tract, metabolized in the liver, excreted in the kidneys. Cox-2
Zolmitriptan is what type of Cox-2 drug? 5-HT1
Name of drug and Cox-1 or 2? Effective only in gout. Often used to treat acute gout to relieve joint pain and edema. Colchicine Cox-2
Name of drug? Prevents formation of uric acid. Useful in chronic gout. Allopurinol- Zyloprim
Normally synthesized continuously. Provide protective effects in GI tract and kidneys. Cox-1
The gastric pH of an infant is more __________. Alkaline
Naproxen Sodium is what type of drug? NSAID
Eletriptan is what type of drug? 5-HT1
Naproxen is what type of drug? NSAID
______mcg/day of ____________is recommended to prevent fetal abnormalities of the __________and ___________. 400mcg/day; Folic acid; Brain and spinal cord
Block the production of prostaglandins associated with pain and inflammation without blocking prostaglandins which have protective effects on gastric mucosa Cox-2 Inhibitors
Only drug in its class available in the USA Tylenol
What can be given starting at 12 weeks gestation that decreases preterm risk? What % does it drop? 81mg/day ASA; 40%
What is the term for when the effects of a drug are inseparable from the desired effects? Secondary reactions
Hypoglycemia, CNS depression, seizures, and coma are signs of symptoms of what? Severe toxicity
Indomethacin is what type of drug? NSAID
Choline Magnesium trisalicate- Trilisate is what type of drug? Salicylate
What is the onset and peak of Salicylate drugs? Onset 30-60 min; Peak 2 h
Gastric distress, N/V, respiratory alkalosis, hearling loss, toxicity, and Reye's syndrome are adverse effects to what? Aspirin (Salicylates)
Teratogenic effects likely occur in which trimester? First
What % of congenital abnormalities are attributed to drug exposure? 1%
ASA is contraindicated in children with __________or_____________. Flu or Varicella
What is the term for when the body becomes accustomed to a drug over time and larger doses are needed to produce the same effects? Tolerance
What is it when the immune system IDs drug as a foreign substance that may be destroyed. Causes direct injury to cells and tissue. Allergy
What may be physiological, psychological, or both, and may bring about unpleasant symptoms when drug is withdrawn? Dependence
What chemical mediator causes dilation of the arterioles and increases capillary permeability? Histamine
What increases serotonin in the brain and causes vasoconstriction? Has fewer side effects than ergot alkaloids? Sumatriptan-Imatrex
Sulindac is what type of drug? NSAID
Act on specific subtype of serotonin receptor to increase serotonin in the brain. Called "triptans". Developed specifically for migrains. Selective Seratonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists
All _____________ have black box warnings. NSAIDs
Fenoprofen Calcium is what type of drug? NSAID
What are the five cardinal signs of inflammation? Redness, swelling, heat, pain, loss of function
Diclofenac is what type of drug? NSAID
Drug that specifically effects bone and tooth development. Should not be given to what patients? Tetracycline; Pregnant, breastfeeding, 8 yrs or younger
Naratriptan is what type of drug? 5-HT1
Salicylates produce what therapeutic effects? Analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory
Detprofen is what type of drug? NSAID
Children under _____ years of age have a __________ intestine. 2; shorter
1st generation of Cox is _____________. 2nd generation of Cox is________________. Non-selective; Selective.
Frovitriptan is what type of drug? 5-HT1
Tinnitus, vertigo, and bronchospasm are symptoms of what? Aspirin hypersensitivity
What is the term for: Usually occurs from miscalculation of a drug which requires precise individualized calculation? Excessive Therapeutic Effect
Ketorolac Tromethamine is what type of drug? NSAID
Diflunisal - Dolobid is what type of drug? Sailcylates
Sodium Salicylate - Pablate inhibits what? Cox-1 and Cox-2
In aged patients, changes in the _______ increase sensitivity to depressants. CNS
What chemical mediator causes an increase in vasodilation, capillary permeability, pain, and fever? Prostaglandins
Tolmitin Sodium is what type of drug? NSAID
Normally present in small amounts or inactive until stimulated by pain and inflammation. Cox-2 Enzymes
Migraines are thought to be __________headaches caused by ___________. Vascular; Vasodilation
What type of drug has a chemical structure different from corticosteroids, but same therapeutic effects? NSAIDs
What type of drug has antiplatelet activity that subsides when the drug is eliminated? NSAIDs
What does choline salicylate - atrhropan inhibit? Cox-1 and Cox-2
Salsalate- Disalisad inhibits what? Cox-1 and Cox-2
What is the term for when a drug mimics pathological disorders (i.e. aspirin-GI bleeding) Iatrogenic Drug Effects
What is the term: when a drug is given in a large dose, may damage tissues and organs and precipitate illness Overdose Toxicity
Ergot derivative used only for prevention of migraine. May cause fibrosis of aorta, heart, and lungs if used more than 4 consecutive months Methysergide- Sansert
Restricts vascular smooth muscle of blood vessels of the brain. Most effective sublingually or by inhalation Ergotamine Tartrate- Ergomar
Synthetic derivative that is less toxic than its parent drug DHE 45
Decreased amount of uric acid. Used for prevention of gout. Uloric
Contraindicated in patients with Hx of MI, Angina, and uncontrolled HTN 5-HT1
Numbness and tingling of the extremities are side effects of what? 5-HT1
What labs would you watch with Acetaminophen? Liver Function
What labs would you watch with Aspirin? Kidney Function
Rapidly absorbed and widely distributed. Metabolized in the liver and excreted in the kidneys. Salicylates
Don't freak out! You've got this! :)
These flashcards are probably harder than____ The test! (Hopefully)
What are three ways can a person be treated if they ingested something they shouldn't have? Mucomyst, NG Lavage, Charcoal
Created by: mreedy