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Microbiology 160

Describe the E. Coli chromosome The E. Coli chromosome is a giant circular molecule made of 4.64 million base pairs that encodes 4,466 proteins.
What are plasmids? Plasmids are circular genetic elements smaller than the chromosome carrying nonessential genes giving bacteria additional characteristics such as toxin production or antibiotic resistance.
What is filtration? A mechanical method for disinfecting air and sterilizing liquids with heat sensitive components.
How do bacteria grow? How high can the population get? Bacteria grows by binary fission. Population may grow up to 10^8-10^9 cells per mL
What are polysaccharides made of? What is the singular form of polysaccharides? Carbohydrates monosaccharides
How does bacteria change characteristics? 3 possible ways: 1. Mutation 2. Change in Base Sequence 3. Recombination- blocks of DNA from donor
How can the success of heat treatment be evaluated? Determine the D value decimal reduction time. -length of time for a cell population to decrease by 10-fold at a given temp.
How large is a gene? 1K nucleotides long; starts with 3 bases (start codon) and ends with 3 bases (stop codon)
What is complex media? Exact chemical composition is unkown; Extracts and digest of animal and plant products.
How is transcription carried out? How does transcription use DNA? Transcription is carried out by RNA polymerase. Transcription uses a gene in DNA as a template to produce mRNA.
What are proteins? What kinds of structures do proteins have? Proteins are polymers of amino acids. 20 amino acids are held together by peptide bonds. Proteins have primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structures.
What elements make up living organisms? *hint* there are 6 1. Nitrogen 2. Oxygen 3. Carbon 4. Hydrogen 5. Sulfur 6. Phosphorus
What is selective media? Selective media is when a chemical is added to discourage growth of unwanted bacteria.
What is differential media? Differential media allows differentian between colonies.
What is microbiology? Microbiology is the study of organisms too small to see by the naked eye.
What unit do we use to measure bacteria? We use micrometers.
Who first described microorganisms? Antonio Van Leeuwenhock
What is DNA? What are the bases and their pairs? DNA is a double helix molecule that is a polymer of deoxyribonucleotide subunits. A pairs with T; G pairs with C
What is RNA? What are the bases and their pairs? RNA is a polymer of nucleotides. A is paired with U; G is paired with C
What does the endosymbiant hypothesis say about mitochondria and chloroplasts? They are believed to have arisen.
How is radiation used? In both ionizing and non-ionizing forms.
What forms are chemicals used in? Chemicals are used in gas and liquid states.
How does the gram-stain work? Why does gram positive turn purple? Why does gram negative turn pink? It is a technique to identify bacteria. Violet dye is first applied, then red dye. If it holds the violet dye, it will come up purple or gram positive. If it rejects some or most of violet dye, it will absorb red dye and come up as pink.
What is the endosymbiant hypothesis? It speaks of mitochondria and chloroplast, starts as two organisms and they come together. The two organisms arise as 1.
What is a codon? 3 nucleotides that form a genetic code in DNA/RNA molecules.
What is transcription? What is translation? Transcription-takes DNA and synthesizes RNA from it. Translation-takes synthesized RNA and translates it into protein molecules.
How are bacteria classified? *hint* this is based on carbon and energy sources. Carbon: Autotroph- creates it's own nutrition Heterotroph-eats from others Energy: Phototroph-uses light energy (sun) Chemotroph-uses chemicals
Describe the 4 phases of growth and how they work. 1. Lag 2. Log/Experimental 3. Stationary 4. Death Lag-Bacteria learns to adapt; not able to divide. (RNA and enzymes synthesize) Log- Cell doubling (conditions determine cells actions) Stationary-Due to growth limiting factor (equal # of cells dying and growing) Death-Bacteria die.
What does each bacterial cell look like? 1. Coccus 2. Rod 3. Vibrio 4. Spirillum 5. Spirochete Coccus- circular Rod-rod shaped Vibrio-similar looking to sperm Spirillum-Spiral shaped with tails Spirochete-Spiral shaped-- similar to a worm
What is biofilm? What grows specifically as biofilm? Biofilm is the film of bacteria that sticks to a surface. Bacteria grows as biofilm.
Who disproved spontaneous generation? How? Louis Pasteur; Swan neck flasks
What did Robert Koch do for microbiology? He studied anthrax; developed Koch's postulates which linked a specific disease to a specific microorganism.
How is heat used in micro? Sterilization and disinfection
What are 3 major classes of control methods? 1.Physical 2. Chemical 3. Mechanical
What is endocytosis Taking in matter by forming a pouch in the membrane to form a storage bubble (AKA vacule)
What is defined media? Exact chemical composition is known
What are bacterial growth factors? What is their function? A bacterial growth factor is a compound a cell MUST have to grow but the cell cannot synthesize. They help bacteria grow to their full potential
What major macromolecules are bacteria composed of? *hint* there are 7. 1. Protein 2. RNA 3. Phospholipids 4. Lipopolysaccharide 5. DNA 6. Peptidoglycan 7. Glycogen - there are also metabolites and ions.
What is the chemical composition of prokaryotic cell structures?*hint* there are 10 1. Protein 2. Polysaccharide 3. Lipid 4. Lipopolysaccharide 5. DNA 6. RNA 7. Amino Acids 8. Sugars 9. Nucleotides 10. Inorganic ions
What are phospholipids made of? Hydrophobic molecules. -Glycerol -Phosphate -Fatty acids
What carries out endocytosis? Eukaryotic cells of animals and protozoa.
How is DNA replicated? Replicated by polymerase activity; each strand acts as a template for a new DNA strand. A=T G=C
How is mRNA translated? mRNA is translated by ribosomes reading 3 base codons with tRNA molecules bringing amino acids to ribosome.
Created by: jennashaffer241