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Apologia Biology 6

Apologia Biology Module #6

Absorption The transport of dissolved substances into cells
Activation energy Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going
Active transport Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a chemical process
Anticondon A three-nucleoctide sequence on tRNA
Cell wall A rigid substance on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
Central vacuole A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution which contains a high concentration of solutes
Chromatin Clusters of DNA and proteins in the nucleus
Chromoplasts Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
Codon A sequence of three nucleotides on mRNA that refer to a specific type of amino acid
Cytology The study of cells
Cytolysis The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
Cytoplasm A jelly-like fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Cytoplasmic streaming The motion of the cytoplasm which results in a coordinated movement of the cell's organelles
Digestion The breakdown of absorbed substances
Ejestion The removal of non-soluble waste materials
Endoplasmic reticulum An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes which perform several tasks within a cell
Excretion The removal of soluble waste materials
Golgi bodies The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Homeostasis Maintaining the status quo in a cell
Hypertonic solution A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell which resides in the solution
Ions Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons
Isotonic solution A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
Leucoplasts Organelles that store starches or oils
Lyosome The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions which break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
Messenger RNA The RNA that performs transcription
Microtubules Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a rope-like structure
Middle lamella The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
Mitochondria The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
Nuclear membrane A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Passive transport Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion
Phagocytic vacuole - A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs
Phagocytosis The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
Phospholipid A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule which contains a phosphate group
Pinocytic vesicle Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
Plasma membrane The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings
Plasmolysis A collapse of the cell's cytoplasm due to lack of water
Reproduction Producing more cells
Respiration The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
Ribosomes Non-membrane-bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis
Rough endoplasmic reticulum ER that is dotted with ribosomes
Secretion The release of biosynthesized substances for use by other cells
' Secretion vesicle Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum ER that has no ribosomes
Transcription The process in which mRNA produces a negative of a strand of DNA
Translation The process by which proteins are formed in the ribosome according to the negative in mRNA
Waste vacuoles Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion
Created by: Kids3
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