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Pharmacology

Important information

QuestionAnswer
What is an agonist? An extrinsic drug that activates the receptor site of a cell and mimics the actions of naturally occurring drugs (intrinsic drugs).
What is bioavailability? The percentage of a drug that actually reaches the blood.
What is duration of action? The length of time a drug is present in the blood at or above the level needed to produce an effect or response.
What is the enteral route? Movement of drugs from the outside of the body to the inside using the gastrointestinal tract.
What is the first pass effect? Rapid inactivation or elimination of oral drugs as a result of liver metabolism.
What is half-life? Time span needed for one half of a drug dose to be eliminated.
What is a loading dose? The first dose of a drug that is larger than all subsequent doses of the same drug; used when it takes more drug to reach steady state than it does to maintain it.
What is minimum effective concentration (NEC)? The smallest amount of drug necessary in the blood or target tissue to result in a measurable intended effect.
What is parenteral route? Movement of a drug from the outside of the body to the inside of the body by injection (intra-arterial, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intracavity, intraosseous, intrathecal).
What is the percutaneous route? Movement of a drug from the outside of the body to the inside through the skin or mucous membranes.
What is pharmacodynamics? Ways in which drugs work to change body functions.
What is pharmacokinetics? How the body changes drugs:drug metabolism.
What is potency? The strength of the intended action produced at a given drug dose.
What are receptors? Physical place on or in a cell where a drug can bind and interact.
What is steady state? Point at which drug elimination is balanced with drug entry, resulting in a constant effective blood level of the drug.
What is target tissue? The actual cells or tissues affected by the mechanism of action or intended actions of a specific drug.
What is trough? The lowest or minimal blood drug level.
What is the normal values for Albumin? 3.5 - 5.0 g/dL
What is the normal value for bilirubin? 0.1 - 1.0 mg/dL
What is the normal value for blood urea nitrogen (BUN)? 10 -20 mg/dL
What is the normal value for Creatinine? Males: 0.6 - 1.3 mg/dL Females: 0.5 -1 mg/dL
What is the normal value for Sodium? 135 - 145 mEq/L
What is the normal value for potassium? 3.5 - 5 mEq/L
What is the range for red blood cells? Women: 4.2 to 5.4 million/mm3 Men: 4.7 to 6.7 million/mm3
What is the range for platelets? 150,000 to 400,000/mm3
What is the range for hematocrit? Women; 37% to 47% Men 42% to 45%
What is the range for hemoglobin? Women: 12 - 16 g/dL Men: 14 - 18 g/dL
What is the onset of action? The length of time it takes for a drug to start to work.
What is a STAT order? An order written to administer a drug once and as soon as possible.
What is activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)? Plasma coagulation test developed for monitoring the effects of unfractionated heparin, in which plasma coagulation is activated in two steps.
What is an anticoagulant? A drug used to prevent clot formation or to prevent a clot that has already formed from getting bigger.
What is an antiplatelet drug? A drug that prevents platelets from forming plugs that lead to clots.
What are clotting factor synthesis inhibitors? Drugs that decrease the production of clotting factors in the liver.
What is coagulation? The process by which a blood clot forms.
What is an embolus? Something that travels through the bloodstream, lodges in a blood vessel, and blocks its blood flow (for example, a detached blood clot, a clump of bacteria, or foreign material such as air).
What is fibrin? The protein formed during normal blood clotting that is the essence of the clot?
What is international normalized ratio (INR)? A system established for reporting the results of warfarin anticoagulation.
What are platelets? Irregular disk-shaped elements in the blood that help with blood clotting.
What is a pulmonary embolism? An embolus that travels to the lungs and can be life threatening.
What are thrombin inhibitors? Drugs that interfere with blood clotting by blocking the action of thrombin, which converts fibrinogen to fibrin to form clots.
What is a thrombolytic? A drug that breaks a clot that has already formed. Fibrinolytic drugs are a class of thrombolytic.
What is a thrombus? A blood clot in a blood vessel or within the heart.
What is a venous thromboembolism (VTE)? A condition in which there is a clot in a vein. It may be referred to as a deep vein thrombosis.
What are the ranges for aPTT? Normal range: mean normal range established in seconds by laboratory Therapeutic range: 1.5 - 2.5 times mean normal range
What are the ranges for INR? Normal range: 0.8 - 1.2 Therapeutic range: 2.0 - 3.0
What are direct thrombin inhibitors? Ones given intravenously to prevent clot formation or embolic complications: Argatroban, Angiomax, Refludan
What do ESAs do? Erythropoiesis stimulating agents make the bone marrow increase production of RBSc.
What do TSAs do? Thrombopoiesis stimulating agents are more specific for stimulating bone marrow to increase production of platelets.
Created by: nursenancy