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Ch 12 - 13 Biology

DNA / RNA and Protein Synthesis

Frederick Griffith In 1928, British Scientist who wanted to know how bacteria made people sick.
S strain Harmful bacteria, smooth edges
R strain Harmless bacteria, rough edges
Griffith's experiment results Transformation = one type of harmless bact. permanently changed into another harmful bact.
Oswald Avery In 1944, Canadian Scientist wanted to determine which molecule in the heat-killed bacteria was most important for transformation.
Avery's experiment Extracted a mixture of various molecules from the heat killed bacteria. They treated the mixture with enzymes that destroyed proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids
Avery's experiment results Transformation still occurred Except…. When DNA was detroyed. Transformation could NOT occur
Hershey and Chase Studied Viruses - specifically viruses that infect bacterica
3 Roles of DNA Store Information Copy Information Transmit Information
DNA must do 3 Things Carry Information from one generation to the next Determine heritable Characteristics Be easily replicated for mitosis to occur
What is DNA made up of? Made up of units called nucleotides
Basic Parts of DNA (3) Phosphate Group 5-Carbon Sugar (deoxyribose) Nitrogen Containing Base
Chargaff's Rule A=T and G=C
Rosaline Franklin Used X - Ray diffusion to give clues about DNA structure. She stretched DNA fibers and aimed a powerful X-ray beam that formed the scattered pattern picture showing a twisted structure of 2 strands.
Watson and Crick Used Chargraffs rule and Franklin's picture to build a structural model of DNA.
Double Helix 2 strands that are wound around each other looking like spiral staircase.
Hydrogen Bonds Holds strands of DNA together
A-T Double bonded
G-C Triple bonded
What features a sugar phosphate backbone? DNA Structure
DNA molecules separate into ________ strands and then produces two new___________ strands following the rules of base pairing 2 strands ; 2 new strands
Before a cell divides, it duplicates its DNA in a copying process called ___________________ Replication
S Phase When DNA replication occurs
DNA polymerase Principle enzyme involved in DNA replication "Proofreads" each new strand
Prokaryotes Single circular DNA in cytoplasm
Eukaryotes Have 1000 times more DNA than prokaryotes; has DNA in the nucleus
Prokaryotic Replication Starts from a single point and proceeds in 2 different directions until the entire chromosome is copied.
Eukaryotic Replication Begins at dozens or even hundreds of places on the DNA molecule, proceeding in both directions until each chromosome is copied.
Proteins Check for chemical damage or base pair mismatches before replication.
RNA Ribonucleic Acid
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
How is RNA different from DNA? RNA is single stranded Contains ribose instead of deoxyribose Contains uracil instead of thymine
DNA = "_____" "Master Blueprint"
RNA = "_____ " "Disposable Copy"
Created by: mellon