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Rocks Minerals Soils

SRA Real Science Chapter B4 Rocks, Minerals, and Soils

traces or remains of plants or animals; formed when parts of plants or animals are preserved in mud; the mud eventually turns to rock Fossils
fossils that can be used to help scientists determine the age of rock layers; the remains of animals that lived only during a short time period index fossils
This identifies four different times in Earth's history; index fossils have helped scientists develop this geologic timetable
solids that form naturally and have a specific chemical makeup and physical form minerals
how many minerals are common about 100
elements combine to form this many different minerals about 500
what are some common minerals quartz, talc, salt, and graphite
atoms that are arranged in repeating patterns are called this crystals
what are four ways that minerals are identified hardness, luster, color, and the way they break
the "true" color of a mineral; when you rub a mineral across a white unglazed ceramic tile; the ___ of the mineral always stays the same streak
a mixture of rock, plant material, animal material, water and air soil
decomposed plant and animal matter humus
three examples of different kinds of soil sand, silt, and clay
a type of soil that has large grains of rock big enough for you to see sand
a type of soil that can only be seen through a magnifying glass; a powdery mixture silt
a soil with the smallest grains; can be molded with your hands, forms a hard brick when it dries clay
best soil for growing things a mixture of sand, silt, and clay
how well a soil holds water water retention
if you cut into the earth a remove a slice of several meters deep to see several layers of soil; scientists call these layers this soil horizons
things we can use that never run out inexhaustible resources
preserving and protecting the soil and to use it wisely soil conversation
a process for making the decomposing plant matter necessary for soil composting
five factors that influence soil formation 1. time; 2. type of rock in an area; 3. climate of an area; 4. slope of the land; 5. plants and animals
five characteristics required to be considered a mineral 1. must be solid, not a liquid/gas; 2. must be made from nonliving things; 3. must occur naturally on Earth; 4. must be a single substance, always made from exact same elements in exact same proportions; 5. atoms must be arranged in crystals
rocks can be grouped into these three types 1. igneous 2. sedimentary 3. metamorphic
rocks formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are changed by great heat or pressure metamorphic
rocks formed when loose materials, such as small rocks or pieces of dead plants and animals are pressed together sedimentary
rocks formed by cooling liquid rock called magma igneous
the name of the process by which rocks are always changing, wearing down and then forming again the rock cycle
volcanoes make igneous - broken into pieces - eroded/deposited to become sedimentary -- buried deeply/undergo heat & pressure - become metamorphic -- then melt as pushed further into earth -- become igneous again the steps in the rock cycle
layers in the soil top layer is topsoil (A horizon) up to 5 meters deep; subsoil (B horizon) about 1 m deep; C horizon - made of weathered rock; and deeper, solid bedrock
much topsoil is lost to forces such as wind, rain, and ice; this process is called ___ erosion
New soil is being made but it can take this long to make 1 cm of soil a thousand years
erosion can destroy 1 cm of soil in less than this amount of time 5 years
soil can be lost because of these actions of people overfarming; raising livestock; logging and mining; strip mining; roads and parking lots bury topsoil
ways that people can practice soil conversation farmers can rotate crops; adding nutrients and minerals to farm fields; planting trees; composting
why is soil so important to people and to animals many things we need in life we get from the soil; food; plants that make clothes; trees for paper and wood; medicines from plant - people and animals couldn't live without materials from plants grown in soil
Created by: 1651136206
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