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Biology 3 Exam 1

Evolution, Development, Radiata

Allele Version of a gene.
Adaptation Heritable trait that increases fitness via natural selection.
Darwin's 4 Postulates 1. Individual variation 2. Some variations are heritable 3. More offspring produced than survive 4. Individuals with traits that confer an advantage are more likely to survive and reproduce
4 Mechanisms of Evolution 1. Mutation 2. Genetic Drift 3. Gene Flow 4. Natural Selection
Mutation [Mechanism of evolution] - Any change in the heritable material of an organism; production of new alleles.
Genetic Drift [Mechanism of Evolution] - Random changes in alleles frequencies in a population due to chance events.
Gene Flow [Mechanism of evolution] - Movement of alleles from one population to another.
Homolgy Similarity due to shared ancestry.
Synapomorphies Shared derived traits that have been modified from the ancestral species.
Apoptosis Programmed cell death.
Gastrulation Cell movement in the blastula where the cells rearrange themselves into the germ layers.
Homoplasy Convergent evolution produces a polyphyletic group in which two organisms that share an environment have developed similar morphologies.
Parsimony Least amount of changes portrayed in phylogenic trees.
Cortical Granules Vesicles containing digestive enzymes
Diploblast 2 germ layers: Ectoderm & Endoderm
Triploblast 3 germ layers: Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm
What does the MESODERM (triploblast) develop into? - Muscle - Organs - Connective tissue
What does the ENDODERM (triploblast) develop into? - Digestive tract
What does the ECTODERM (triploblast) develop into? - Skin - Nervous system
Cephalazation The evolution of a head, or anterior region, where structures for feeding, sensing the environment, and processing information are concentrated.
Ganglia Concentration of neurons.
Ceolom Fluid filled cavity lined by the MESODERM and sandwiched between the ECTODERM and ENDODERM.
Protosome - Blastopore becomes the mouth - Spiral cleavage - Ceolom developed from mesoderm that expands indepedently of endoderm. - Bilateral symmetry
Deuterosome - Blastpore becomes the anus. - Radial Cleavage - Ceolom develops from the mesoderm pinching off from the endoderm. - Bilateral Symmetry (except Echinodermata)
Clade Parazoa Synapomorphy: Multicellularity - Porifera - Placazoa
Clade Radiata Synapomorphies: Diploblasts, radial symmetry, neurons, primitive muscle cells, tissue development. - Cnidaria - Ctenophora
Aceolomate - 2 germ layers. - No ceolom. - Flatworms and ribbon worms.
Pseudoceolomate - 2 germ layers. - Pseudoceolom isn't surrounded by mesoderm. - Nematodes
Ceolomate - 3 germ layers. - Ceolom surrounded by mesoderm. - Arthropods, Chordates
Macro-evolution Descent with modification.
Micro-evolution Change in allele frequencies in a population over time.
Corona Radiata A bunch of cells surrounding the egg for protection.
Mesohyl Cellular matrix in the body of Porifera between the ECTODERM and ENDODERM
Leuconoid Body Plan Flagellated chambers with a small OSCULUM
Osculum Large opening in which water flows out of a sponge.
Monoecious "One Body" Hermaphroditic; both female and male gametes.
Diecious "Two Body" Heterogenous; separate male and female individuals.
Zooxanthelle Mutualistic photosynthetic algae embedded in the epidermis of coral. Provides nutrients and aids in waste recycling.
Created by: TroyJSharpe