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Adapted Structures and Biochemstry

What adaptations does a leaf have to help its function of photosynthesis? 1: It has a large, flat surface area. 2: It is thin to allow for rapid diffusion of gases. 3: The cuticle and epidermis are transparent to allow light to travel through them. 4: The top of the leaf has more chlorophyll as it gets the most light.
What are the layers of a leaf called, from top to bottom. Top - Cuticle, Upper Epidermis, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll, Lower Epidermis - Bottom
What are the advantages of photosynthesis to the environment? 1: Photosynthesis allows plants to make their own food. 2: Herbivores get their energy from plats and carnivores get their energy from these animals. 3: Photosynthesis removes Carbon Dioxide from the atmosphere and replaces it with Oxygen.
What are energy carriers? Give an example of one? ATP is an energy carrier. These are used to store and release energy in the cells.
What does ADP/ATP stand for? What is it made up of? ADP = Adenosine Diphosphate. ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate. These are made up of an Adenosine molecule which is made up of the protein Adenine and the sugar Ribose and either 2 or 3 phosphate molecules.
Where is the energy stored in ATP? In the bond between the second phosphate and the third high energy phosphate molecule.
What are the 2 main stages of Photosynthesis? What were their old names? The Light Dependent Stage and the Light Independent Stage. Old names = Light stage and Dark Stage.
Why were the stages names changed from light stage and dark stage? The light stage implies it happens in the light which it does, however the dark stage implies this part happens in the dark. The dark stage does not require darkness, it simply DOES NOT NEED LIGHT.
What happens in the first part of the Light Dependent Stage? Chlorophyll concentrates the energy in sunlight and uses it to split water (Hydrolysis) into a proton, an electron and oxygen.
What happens to the products of Hydrolysis? The proton is stored in a pool of protons until needed later. The oxygen is released through the stomata or used for respiration. The electron enters one of 2 available pathways.
What are the 2 available pathways to an electron in the Light Dependent Stage? Cyclic Phosphorylation and Non-Cyclic Phosphorylation.
What happens in cyclic phosphorylation? The electron enters the electron carrier system where it is promoted and receives more and more energy. At the end of the system the electron uses its energy to fuse a phosphate onto ADP forming ATP. The electron is now recycled, hence cyclic.
What happens in non cyclic phosphorylation? The electron again enters the electron carrier system where it is promoted and receives energy. It now bonds with NADP to form NADP-. This negative charge attracts the positive proton from Hydrolysis which bond together to form the energy carrier NADPH.
What are the products of the Light Dependent Stage? Oxygen, ATP and NADPH
Outline the events of the Light Independent Stage? A process called reduction takes place where the energy from ATP, the H and the electron from the NADPH and Carbon Dioxide are reacted together to form Glucose. The remaining ADP and NADP are recycled back into the Light Dependent Stage.
What does a Chloroplast look like? It has 2 membranes covering a liquid centre known as the stroma. Inside each stroma is a stack of thylakoid disks containing chlorophyll. These stacks of chlorophyll are called granum.
When investigating the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis what were the constants and what were the independent and dependent variable? Constant: temperature, with a water bath. Carbon Dioxde concentration, using excess Sodium Bicarbonate. Independent Variable: the light intensity, moved the light closer/farther. Dependent Variable: the amount of bubbles produced.
What would you do if the light was unable to be moved in the experiment? We could change the wattage of the bulb used.
What is the relationship between light intensity and rate of photosynthesis? As light intensity increases so too does the rate of photosynthesis.
What precaution must we take every time we move the light in the experiment? We must wait 5 minutes before taking any readings to give the plant a chance to adapt to the new conditions.
Why are plants green? Green light carries little to no energy that the plants can absorb so they reflect green light rather than absorb it. Red and blue light contain the most energy for plants.
Created by: cbsbiology