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Enzymes and Energy Carriers

What is metabolism? Metabolism is the combination of all the internal reactions in our bodies.
What are enzymes? Enzymes are biological catalysts which speed up or slow down a chemical reaction without being used up themselves.
What is the difference between anabolic and catabolic enzymes? Anabolic enzymes build up compounds while catabolic enzymes break compounds down.
Give 4 properties of enzymes: 1: Enzymes are made of proteins. 2: They have a folded £D shape. 3: This complex shape makes them specific. 4: Each enzyme contains an active site where the enzyme bonds to the substrate.
What do we mean when we say enzymes are specific? Specific means that one enzyme will only work on one specific molecule/reaction. ie: salivary amylase will only work on starch.
What theory best explains how enzymes work. What does it mean? The Induced Fit Theory. When an enzyme bonds with a substrate the active site changes shape slightly to get a better grip on the substrate.
What do we call the molecule an enzyme works on? The substrate.
What are the 2 main factors that affect enzyme activity? pH and temperature
How does pH affect enzyme activity? Each enzyme has a pH it work best at. This is known as the enzymes OPTIMUM pH. As we move away from this pH the enzyme activity slows down. This change is reversible. Most human enzymes work best between pH of 6-8
How does temperature affect enzyme activity? Enzyme activity increases with temperature. Human enzymes work better at 37C. If temperature increases too much the enzyme activity stops due to a change in its shape. The enzyme is said to be denatured. This is not reversible.
When investigating enzyme activity what enzyme, substrate and product were examined? Enzyme = catalase from celery. Substrate = hydrogen peroxide. Product = oxygen
How do we measure the enzyme activity in our experiments? The amount of enzyme activity is judged by the amount of suds produced when oxygen is caught in the washing up liquid. More suds = more enzyme activity.
What 3 pHs are used when investigating the effect of pH on enzyme activity? Which works best? 4, 7 and 10. pH 10 is catalases optimum pH/
What is bioprocessing? Bioprocessing is the use of enzyme controlled reactions to produce a product.
What is a bioreactor? A bioreactor is a vessel in which living cells or their products are used to make a product.
Give 3 examples of bioprocessing 1: Brewing: yeast is used to convert sugar to alcohol. 2: Baking: yeast release carbon dioxide which causes bread to rise. 3: Dairy products: yoghurt and cheese are made using bacterial enzymes.
What are immobilised enzymes? What is the advantage of immobilised enzymes? Immobilised enzymes are enzymes that are attached tor fixed to each other or to an inert material. This allows the enzymes to be reused again and again as they do not get mixed with the substrate. They are also cheaper than using free enzyme solutions.
What chemicals are needed to make immobilised enzymes? Sodium alginate and calcium chloride.
Give 3 example of immobilised enzymes and the reactions they are used in. 1: Glucose isomerase is used to convert glucose to fructose in the soft drink industry. 2: Penicillin acylase is used to alter the structure of penicillin to develop new antibiotic. 3: Lactase converts the sugar lactose into sweeter glucose and galactose
Created by: cbsbiology