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Lesson 36

Change and Mutations

Gradualism the slow and gradual processes that are believed to have occurred over millions of years
Punctuated Equilibrium a theory that explains gaps in the fossil record. It is characterized by long stable periods in earth’s history interrupted by brief periods of change
Mutation a mistake, defect, or change in the genetic code, they can be either positive, negative, or neutral
Zoologist a person who studies animals
Mutagens substances or agents that can alter the structure of DNA, causing a mutation
Mitosis the process of cell division that results in two identical cells
Deletion this occurs when a chromosome is lost during mitosis
Duplication the process during which chromosomes get replicated (copied) during mitosis
Inversion this occurs during mitosis when a chromosome becomes oriented in the reverse of its usual direction
Translocation this occurs when a piece of chromosome gets broken off and attaches to another chromosome during mitosis
Nondisjunction this occurs when chromosomes do not separate correctly during meiosis
Nucleotide a nucleic acid that is made up of three parts: a sugar, phosphate, and a base that contains nitrogen. There are five different bases that make up DNA
Point Mutation a gene mutation that involves a single nucleotide
Frame Shift Mutation a gene mutation that involves the deletion or insertion of a nucleotide, thus changing the grouping of codons
Cancer uncontrolled cell division resulting in tumors
Created by: ecotteacher