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10 1.3 Inheritance

QuestionAnswer
Genetics the study of inherited characteristics
Gregor Mendel developed the original theory of genetics.
Pure-breeding all individuals have the same genetic information eg red flowered plants only give rise to red flowered plants
Dominant the characteristic that is observed in the next generation eg 'R' for Red (dominant)
Recessive a characteristic that may remain hidden in the next generation eg 'r' for White (recessive)
Alleles variations of a gene eg for colour 'R' for Red (dominant) and 'r' for White (recessive)
Homozygous having 2 alleles exactly the SAME either RR or rr
Heterozygous having 2 different alleles MIXED either rR or Rr
Punnett square a method of representing possible outcomes from breeding
Genotype represented by the alleles eg RR, rr, or rR (ie its genes)
Phenotype the characteristic - flower colour or face (sort of rhymes at the first letter)
Incomplete dominance some genes have alleles that neither dominate or are recessive, they blend, which makes the offspring different from both of its parents. Red + White = Pink
Sex-linked genes some genes are only found on the X and Y genes - colour blindness is only found on the X chromosome. Haemophilia is also sex linked.
Mutation mistakes do occur in the copying of DNA either due to chance, UV radiation, nuclear radiation, nicotine or many other causes. If this mistake occurs in the egg or the sperm then the mutation may be passed onto the next generation.
Co-Dominance Both alleles are expressed equally. Red + White = Red and White Spots
Created by: camwust