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Modern Mammal Locomotion

What Are The Modes of Mammal Locomotion? Ambulatory, Cursorial, Saltatorial, Swimming, FLying, Gliding, Digging/Burrowing,
Ambulatory Walking, plantigrade walking
Cursorial Running; Stride Length Adaptations; Stride Rate Adaptations; Two types (Digitigrade, unguligrade)
Cursorial Stride Length Adaptations Distal limb bone elongated; Change foot posture; Loss/reduction of the clavicle; Increase flexion and extension
Cursorial Stride Rate Adaptations Joints restrict movements to a single plane; metatarsals and metacarpals fused; Muscles concentrated near body
Digitigrade Cursorial method; One or more toes
Unguligrade Cursorial method; Tip of the toe
Saltatorial Two types (Quadrapedal and Bipedal); Long hind limbs; Large feet; Large hind limb musculature; Stiffening of a spine; Elastic ligaments; Long tail
Quadrapedal Saltatorial method; Jumping
Bipedal Saltatorial method; Ricocheting
Swimming Semi-Aquatic and Full Aquatic
Semi-Aquatic Swimming Method; Long bodies; Swim using limbs; Feet and tail modified with stiff toe hair, thick pelage, and flat tail
Full Aquatic Swimming Method; Modified limbs into flippers; Axial skeleton simplified and rigid; Reduced cervical vertebrae; Poor head movement; Robust Vertebrae
Flying Elongated forearms and hands; Keeled sternum; Small bodies
Climbing Increased friction between feet and substrate with friction pads, claws, prehensile tails, opposable digits; Vertebral columns, expanded ribs, elongated thoracic region, reduced lumbar
Gliding Patagium
Digging/Burrowing Tapered body at front and back; Strong claws and limbs; Strong neck muscles; Tactile and olfactory sensitivities
Created by: LionsandGiants