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Ch. 2 Molecular Bio

Lewin's Essential Genes Chapter 2

What is a linkage group? A set of genes that do assort independently
What did Beadle and Tatum contribute to molecular biology? The one gene: one polypeptide hypothesis
What cause a recessive mutation? A dominant mutation? Loss of function by the polypeptide product. Gain of function
How does one test whether a gene is essential? using a null mutation
What is a null mutation? one that completely eliminates function
What do leaky mutations do? Do not affect the function of the gene product, they are not shown in the phenotype because sufficient activity remains
What is a polymorphic distribution? Distribution of alleles in which no individual allele can be considered the sole wild type (blood type)
What is polymorphism? The simultaneous occurance of the population of alleles showing variations at a given position
What is frameshift mutation? insertion or deletion
What are combinations of mutations? They together insert or delete three bases (or multiples of three) that do not change the reading of the triplets beyond the last site of mutation
What is conlinearity? Bacterial gene has a continuous length of 3N nucleotides that encode N amino acids, Gene is colinear with both mRNA and polypeptide products
What is an antisense strand? The template strande, to which mRNA is complementary
What is a sense stand? The coding strand to which mRNA is identical
How can introns be detected? The presence of additional regions
How are genes compared with their RNA products? restriction mapping or electron microscopy
What are paralogs? genes that share common ancestory due to gene duplication
what is an example of a paralog? alpha and beta globin genes (variability in introns)
Are positions of introns conserved? yes when homologous genes are compared among different organisms
what can vary with the introns? the length
How long are typical exons? short, encoding <100 amino acids
What are genes like in yeasts compared to multicellular eukaryotes? uninterrupted in yeast
in which type of organism are introns typcically short? unicellular eukaryotes
What is alternative initiation or termination? Allows two proteins to be generated where one is equivalent to a fragment of the other
what is an overlapping gene? part of one sequence occurs within another sequence
what is alternative splicing? removal of introns and combining of exons, or removal of introns and one or more exons
what is a gene family? a group of genes that encode related or identical products as a result of gene duplication events
what is an ortholog? related genes in different species
what is a homolog related genes in the same species, such as alleles on homologous chromosomes or multiple genes in the same genome sharing common ancestory
Created by: aublynn2010