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Unit 12

Elimination and specimens/enema & Colostomy

Name the factors that affect defecation in a patient *Age,development.*Diet.*Pain.*Activity.*Irritants.*Lifestyle.*fluid intake.*Diagnostic Procedures.*Anaesthesia & Surgery.*Pathological conditions.*Physiological factors.
Name the factors that may contribute to constipation in a patient *Medications.*Age.*Insufficient exercise.*Overuse of laxatives.*Inappropriate Diet.*Insufficient fluid.*Irregular defecation habits.*Increased physiological stress.*Disease process.
Name 6 common elimination problems Constipation.*Feacal impaction.*Diarrhoea.*feacal incontinence.*Flatulence.*Haemorrhoids.
Name the golden rules when giving a bedpan to a patient *wear disposable gloves if contamination with body fluids is a possibility.*Wash your hands immediatly before and after the procedure to prevent infection.*Provide privacy 4 the pt and try 2 make the pt comfortable during procedure.*Ensure callbell close
Name 5 characteristics of normal urine *Colour:Straw/ámber.*Smell:Faintly aromatic.*Clarity:transparrent/clear.*Sterility:No micro-organisms.*PH:4.5-8.*specific gravity:1 010-1 025.*Glucose/Ketones/blood:Nil present
Name 5 abnormalities found in the chemical analysis of urine as well possible reasons for the abnormalities *Glucose:Glucose in IV,Diabetes.*Ketones:Diabetes,dehydration,starved pt.*Blood:Kidney disease,muscle damage.*Lucocytes & Nitrates:Infection of urine.*Bilirubin:Liver problems.*Proteins:Kidney failure,pre-eclimpsia in pregnancy.
Decribe the care of a patient with an indwelling catheter *Ensure adequate fluid intake 2 rinse bladder.*Wash genitalia 4-6 hrly.*Monitor intake/output.*Report a urinary output of less than 30mls/p.hr.*Replace catheter regularly according 2 type,manufacture.*Empty drainage bags 12 hrly.*Use aseptic technique.
Name the principles of catheter care *Main aim:Prevent ascending infection.*Wash pt using clean basin,soap,water.*Wash from anterior to posterior.*Dry adequately.*Position cath. correctly(fixed to leg).*Never raise cath.bag higher than pt, to prevent backflow of urine.
Name 5 dangers of an indwelling catheter *Infection of bladder/ascending infection.*Kidney damage if catheter is blocked.*Damage to bladder/Urethra causede by cath.*poor bladder muscle tone(incontinence).
Name 5 Reasons for inserting a catheter in a patient *Retention of urine.*To obtain a sterile specimen.*Vaginal operations.*Major operations.*To control incontinence.*Paraplegia.
Describe the nursing care of a patient with a colostomy *Empty colostomy bag when stool is present.*Rinse bag if soiled.*Remove flatus from bag.*Use air fresheners 2 reduce embarresment.*Protect skin around stoma using powders/skin protectors.*Change bag if it leaks.*Report skin breakdown 2 Dr.
Name 3 indications for a Colostomy *Bowel obstruction.*Cancer of the bowel where a colostomy has been performed.*Paraplegic pts who are unable to void feaces normally
Describe the observations you would do when examining a patient's sputum *Quality, smell, colour, stickiness or viscosity, other ingredients such a blood
Describe the principles of collecting a sputum specimen *Explain procedure to pt.*Sputum taken in morning after awakening, before eatin/drinking.*Mouthcare before specimen taken without tootpaste/mouth rinse.*Pt is asked to cough,spit dirictly in coughing jar.*Mucus not saliva must be spat into jar.
Describe the principles of giving an enema/suppossitory *Identify pt & check prescription.*Explain procedure and reason 4 procedure to gain co-operation.*Position pt in left lateral position.* Wear gloves.*Warm enema 2 body temp.*Use a lubricant.*Once inserted advise pt 2 keep fluid in 4 10 mins.*Bell in reach
Name 5 Complications of enema *Rash because of allergy to enema.*Shock caused by expansion of intestine.*Disturbance of the body's fluid balance if no result from enema/fluid retained.*Dehydration because of diarrhoea.*Burning if fluid is too hot.
Name 5 kind of suppositories that may be given to the patient *To administer medication to relieve nausea,pain,to bring down high temperatures,to relieve difficulty breathing when pt cannot easily take medication by mouth.*As a purgative.
Created by: 8111260056087