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Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
All Unit Membranes consist of a phospholipid bilayer and peripheral and integral proteins
In electron microscopy, unit membrane is described as trilaminar because it consists of a lighter layer bounded by two darker layers (resulting from density)
Cell membrane outer surface glycocaylx sticky projections made of glycopotiens and glycolipids
Cell membrane inner surface web of microfilaments, actin
The cell membrane (a) is also called the plasmalemma or plasma membrane (b) is a single unit membrane (c) encloses the cytosol
Cell membrane function Cell integrity & protection , Cell-cell communication
Gap junctions forms a channel allowing the flow of materials between the connected cells They are cylinders constructed from 6 copies of transmembrane proteins called connexins
Tight junction seal adjacent epithelial cells in a narrow band just beneath their apical surface. They consist of a network of claudins and other proteins
Desmosomes adhesion plaques attached to the intercellular face of each plasma membrane. Fibrous transmembrane linker proteins bind to the plaques, that binds the 2 cells firmly. provide rigid anchor points for cytoskeleton, such as the intermediate filaments
Some _?_ in the cell membrane act as carrier molecules that can lock onto a particular substance and then change shape to move the substance from one side of the cell membrane to the other. Integral protiens’
Exocytosis Excretion (waste materials)
Exocytosis Secretion (useful materials)
Endocytosis bulk transport "Bulk transport" moves materials that cannot cross the cell membrane because of their size, shape, electrical charge, or insolubility in lipids. involves pinocytosis (c) phagocytosis (d) receptor mediated endocytosis (e) caveolae
things about pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Pinocytosis is "cell drinking," ccurs to some extent in most cells produces pinocytotic vesicle phagocytosis is "cell eating."; occurs only in specialized cells, produces larger unit packages called phagosomes or phagocytic vacuoles.
The glycocalyx (a) covers the outer surface of the cell membrane (b) consists of glycoproteins: carbohydrates attached to protein molecules (c) consists of glycolipids: carbohydrates attached to lipid molecules
A network of microfilaments lines the inner surface of the cell membrane. The network both supports the membrane and changes its contours as necessary. The microfilaments are composed of the contractile protein actin
Cilia are involved in cell signaling, processing developmental signals, and directing the flow of fluids such as mucus over and around cells (includes movement). They are larger than microvilli. They have effective and recovery strokes
Desmosome cell-to-cell junction resembling a “spot weld” and involves a thickening of the cell membrane, intermediate filaments, and proteins called cadherin
Which cell-to-cell junction resembles a beaded belt of proteins encircling the cell and connecting it to surrounding cells ? (a) tight junction (b) desmosome (c) gap junction gap junction
A "working" ribosome _?_. (a) contains one small subunit + one large subunit (b) “reads” a molecule of mRNA (c) assembles amino acids into a polypeptide or protein (d) all of these (e) none of these all of these (d)
Ribosomes (a) are composed of rRNA molecules and proteins (b) are assembled by the nucleolus (c) synthesize proteins only in the cytoplasmic compartment (d) may be “free” or attached to r.e.r (e) do not always synthesize the same polypeptide or protein.
Polysomes (polyribosomes) (a) are groups of ribosomes reading the same mRNA molecule (b) may be attached to endoplasmic reticulum or “free” in the cytoplasm (c) are efficient methods of making multiple copies of a protein.
SER Functions Functions vary with cell type: lipid processing; steroid synthesis; detoxification reactions storing calcium; ioni c calcium is the signal for the beginning of many cellular events
SER Structure system of interconnected unit membrane tubules.
GER structure interconnected system of membrane enclosed cisternae (spaces). (like pita bread with holes)
GER functions Unit membrane proteins, Hydrolases, Secretory proteins. Ribosomes attach to the membrane when the these things are being made then detach when the protein is completed
GER produces a) hydrolytic enzymes for lysosomes, (c) secretory proteins (d) unit membrane proteins (e) autophagic vacuoles
.Lysosomes organelles containing acid hydrolases. involved in autophagy and heterophagy . The acid hydrolases are manufactured by g.e.r. ribosomes , acid hydrolases are processed by the Golgi and released as unit membrane packages called primary _______
The hydrolytic enzymes in lysosomes: . (a)are proteins that break chemical bonds by adding the equivalent of a water molecule (b) can digest carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (c) are called acid hydrolases because they are activated only in an acidic environment
centrosome the microtubule organizing center of the cell (b) contains a pair of centrioles (c) is located in the cytoplasm, usually near the nucleus
cytoskeleton (a) consists of proteins (b) is responsible for both maintaining and changing cell shape (c) forms a scaffolding for the internal organization of the cell's organelles
The cytoskeleton includes proteins organized to form microtubules (b) microfilaments (c) a variety of intermediate filaments
microtubules radiate from the centrosome, are composed of the protein tubulin, are not identical on both sides, constantly lengthening or shortening. (e) Kinesin and dynein are proteins that move materials in opposite directions along the outsides of microtubules
Microfilaments are composed of two twisted chains of the protein F- actin. (c) F-actin molecules are chains of G-actin molecules. (d) In non-muscle cells, actin interacts with myosin to maintain or change cell shape, change plasmalemma contours, or move organelles.
Mitochondrial matrix (a) clusters of calcium ions or lipids called matrix granules (b) enzymes of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle (c) circular mDNA molecules (d) mitochondrial ribosomes, which produce some mitochondrial proteins
The inner mitochondrial membrane is thrown into cristae that increase its surface area (b) contains electron transport chain enzymes (c) contains oxidative phosphorylases, enzymes that add a third phosphate to ADP
glycosomes store glycogen; a storage form of glucose
Chromatin a)contains the genetic instructions of the cell (b) contains DNA molecules and histones
Euchromatin Chromatin in regions where genes are being "read," stains lightly and is called extended chromatin
heterochromatin in regions where genes are not being "read," stains darkly and is called condensed chromatin
Nucleotide Consist of (a) a ribose or deoxyribose sugar molecule (b) a phosphate group (c) a base: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine or uracil
Created by: beccalu89