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Chapter 1

absolute direction Direction with respect to cardinal east, west, north and south reference points.
absolute distance The shortest-path separation between two places measured on a standard unit of length (usually miles or kilometers).
absolute location The exact location of an object or place stated in spatial coordinates of a grid system designed for locational purposes.
accessibility The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from other locations. May be measured in geometric, social or economic terms.
area analysis tradition One of the four traditions of Geography, that of regional geography.
connectivity The directness of routes linking pairs of places; all of the tangible and intangible means of connection and communication between two places.
cultural landscape The natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society; the built environment.
Culture-environment tradition One of the four traditions of geography; identified with population, cultural, political, and behavioral geography
Earth science tradition One of the four traditions of geography, identified with physical geography in general
Formal (uniform) region A region distinguished by uniformity of one or more characteristics that can serve as the basis for an areal generalization and of contrast with adjacent areas
Functional (nodal) region A region differentiated by what occurs within it rather than by a homogenity of physical or cultural phenomena; and earth area recognized as an operational unit based on defined organizational criteria
Globalization The increasing interconnection of all parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural, political, economic, and enviromental processes and patterns of change becomes international in scale and effort
Locational tradition One of the four traditions of geography; identified with economic, urban, and environmental geography
Natural landscape The physical environment unaffected by human activities. The duration and near totality of human occupation of the Earth's surfaceassusre that little to no "natural landscape" so defined remains intact
Perceptual region A region perceived to exist by its inhabitant or the general populace. Also known as a vernacular region or popular region, it has reality as an element of popular culture or folk culture represented in the mental maps of average people
Region An area of the earth that displays a distinctive grouping of physical or cultural phenomena or is functioanlly united as a single organizational unit
Relative direction A culturally based locational reference, such as the Far West, the Old South, or the Middle East
Relative distance A transformation of absolute distance into such relative measures as time or monetary costs. Distances between places are constant by absolute terms, but relative distances may vary due to improvements to transportation, communications, etc
Relative location The position of a place or an activity in relation to other places or activities
Scale The size of an area studied, from local to global
Site The place where something is located; the immediate surroundings and their attributes
Situation The location of something in relation to the physical and human characteristics of a larger region
Spacial diffusion The outward spread of a substance, a concept, a practice or a population from its point of origion to other areas
Spacial interaction The movement (people, goods, etc.) between different places; and indication of interdependence between areas
In describing the processes and patterns of spatial interaction, geographers employ the ideas of: distance, location, accessibility, and connectivity
The name "geography" was reputedly coined by the Greek scientist: Eratosthenes
What is a dominating interest characterizing all of geography's subdivisions? the spatial variation of physical and human phenomena, regional analysis, spatial systems that link the physical environment and human activities
The physical characteristics of a place help shape how people live, but do not what? Dictate
The term "formal region" implies: a uniformity of the attributes within an area
The culture-environment tradition is primarily concerned with: how people perceive the environments they occupy
Aside from the local scale, spatial relationships may be traced at: regional, national, and global scales
The distribution of cultural phenomena is the focus of which tradition? locational
The visible imprint of human activity is known as: the cultural landscape
Relative location: expresses spatial interconnection and interdependence
Diffusion rates are affected by: distance, population density, means of communication
The term "location matters" refers to: relative location
Distance can be measured: as linear, time, cost, or psychological distances
According to Strabo, the purpose of geography was: describe known parts of the world and to assess the differences among countries
Scale implies: the degree of generalization represented
The cultural landscape: exists at different scales and levels of visibility
Earth areas that display significant elements of uniformity are called: regions
An example of a functional region is: the trade area of a city
The characteristics of places today are the result of: constantly changing past conditions
Absolute location records a precise position, where?
The essential modifier used by geographers in forming their concepts is:
Regional boundaries are marked by: significant changes in the region's unifying characteristics
"Site" refers to: the physical and cultural charcteristics of a place
What term refers to how easy or difficult it is to overcome the friction of distance? Accessibility
Modern geography had its origins in the surge of scholarly inquiry that began in which century? 17th century
Which geography tradition focuses on the study of regions and the recognition of their spatial uniformities and differences? Area analysis tradition
What term refers to the increasing interconnection of all societies in all parts of the world? globalization
With regard to spatial interaction, telephone lines, road systems and pipelines are all examples of: connectivity
Which of the four geography traditions underlies all of geographic inquiry? locational tradition
"Out West" and "down South" are examples of: relative direction
Created by: troyruby