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Wiles--Module 9

Wiles--Module 9 Review--Chromosomes and Cell Division

In what phase of the cell cycle do most cells spend the greatest amount of time? Interphase
What is a picture of one's chromosomes called? Karyotype
What type of cellular reproduction results in new cells with genetic material that is identical to the original cell? Mitosis
What does tetra- mean in Greek? four
What type of cell division reduces the chromosome number by half in new cells? Meiosis
What does G represent or stand for in G1 and G2 phases? Gap
In what phase of mitosis do spindle fibers and centrosomes appear? Prophase
What are immature sperm called? Spermatids
How many chromosomes separate humans and other primates? two
How many pairs of homologous chromosomes do normal humans possess? 23 pairs
What forms during synapsis in Meiosis I when 2 homologous chromosomes pair? Tetrads
What are proteins which help DNA to coil and fit into the nucleus called? Histone proteins
If a cell exits the cell cycle during interphase, what stage of interphase does it enter into? G0 phase
By what process do bacterial cells reprodeuce asexually? Binary fission
What type of reproduction produces offspring through the union of sperm and egg? Sexual
What is the new cell called that is formed from the union of sperm and egg? Zygote
What are the 3 smaller cells produced in oogenesis called? Polar bodies
What is the abbreviation for diploid? 2n
What word describes chromosomes similar in size, shape, and banding patterns? Homologous
What type of reproduction produces offspring from one parent? Asexual
What stage of interphase do chromosomes copy themselves? S phase
What does S stand for in the S stage of interphase? Synthesis
What separates during Anaphase II of Meiosis II? Sister chromatids
What are body cells of an organism called? Somatic cells
What are sex cells of an organism called? Gametes
What condition are somatic cells? Diploid
What condition are gametes? Haploid
What is the abbreviation for haploid? 1n
What is the haploid number for humans? 23
What is the diploid number for humans? 46
What are the sex chromosomes of a male? XY
What are the sex chromsomes of a female? XX
What phase of meiosis I is DNA replicated? Interphase I (S phase)
What two substances primarily make up chromosomes? DNA and proteins
What structures make up spindle fibers? Microtubules
What separates a plant cell into 2 individual cells during cytokinesis? Cell plate
What type of spindle fiber goes from centrosome to centrosome? Polar fibers
What lines up in the middle of a cell during metaphase of Meiosis I (aka metaphase I)? tetrads
What word is often used to describe the middle of the cell where chromosomes lin up in metaphase? Equator
What is a prokaryote's chromosomal information like? (include # and shape) Singular circular chromosome
What is an immature egg cell called? Ootid
Which parent determines the gender of a child? Male or father
What phase of the cell cycle divides the cytoplasm and the cell membrane? Cytokinesis
What is production of egg cells called? Oogenesis
What structure holds the two (sister) chromatids of a chromosome together? Centromere
What is the uncoiled mixture of DNA & protein of a non-dividing cell called? Chromatin
What type of cells have centrioles associated with the centrosomes? Animal cells
What is the nuclear division of the cell cycle known as? Mitosis
What is formed in telophase when an animal cell's membrane starts to pinch inward? Cleavage furrow
After cytokinesis, what phase of the cell cycle do the two daughter cells enter? Interphase
During what stage of interphase do cells grow greatly in size? G1 or Gap 1
What type of spindle fibers extend from centrosome to centromere? Kinetochore fibers
What is a picture of one's chromosomes called? Karyotype
Whate are non-sex chromosomes called? (Pairs 1-22) Autosomes
What is it called when portions of chromatids break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome in Meiosis I? crossing over
What is the process called in which tetrads are formed in Meiosis I? synapsis
During what phase of the cell cycle do the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane disappear or disintegrate? Prophase
If an organism's skin cells have 36 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will be in that organism's sex cells? 18 chromosomes
What is the general term that describes an organism having three chromosomes in a homologous pair? trisomy
What is Trisomy 21 also known as? Down's Syndrome
What is the process called in which a needle is inserted through the abdomen to withdraw amniotic fluid? Amniocentesis
If an organism has 32 chromosomes in its gametes, how many chromosomes will be present in its somatic cells? 64
Where does meiosis occur in male animals? testes
Where does meiosis occur in female animals? ovaries
What are the male gametes of a plant called? Pollen
During spermatogenesis, how many spermatids are produced? four
What does inter- mean? between
What does pro- mean? first
What are the four phases of the cell cycle which constitute mitosis? Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
What does ana- mean? same or in equal proportions
What are the sex chromosomes of a person with Klinefelter's syndrome? XXY
What is the diploid condition for a fruit fly? eight
During what phase of the cell cycle do the centrosomes and the spindle fibers appear? Prophase
During what phase of the cell cycle do the centrosomes and the spindle fibers disappear or disintegrate? Telophase
What phase is usually missing before Meiosis II? Interphase.....if interphase does occur before Meiosis II, then DNA is NOT replicated
What type of spindle fibers run from centrosome to centrosome? polar fibers
What is the purpose of crossing over in meiosis? genetic recombination
What structures do the mitotic spindle fibers radiate from in animals? centrosomes
In animal cells, the centrosomes also contain __________ which help to further organize spindle fibers. Plant cells lack these. centrioles
Discuss the apparent length of the X vs. the Y sex chromosomes. The X chromosome is much longer than the Y chromosome
What is the general term that describes an organism having only one chromosome of a homologous pair? monosomy
What is the term for any organ that produces sex cells? gonad
What disease is caused by uncontrolled cell divisions? cancer
An organism has 12 chromosomes in each somatic cell. Give the diploid and haploid condition of that organism. 2n=12; 1n=6
What is the purpose of kinetochore fibers? move chromosomes
What is independent assortment and how does it affect the genetic makeup of offspring cells? Independent assortment is the random separation of homologous chromosomes. It results in genetic variation.
The DNA of a chromosome is organized into regions called _____________ that code for the formation of proteins. genes
After replication, each chromosome is made of two ____ held together by a(n) _________. sister chromatids; centromere
What type of molecule controls the cell cycle? Proteins called cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases
What is programmed cell death referred to as? apoptosis
Name four carcinogens. radiation such as UV light or X-rays; chemicals like nicotine, Round-up, agent orange, etc.; viruses such as HPV; lifestyle factors such as eating large amounts of fat
What phase of Meiosis I does crossing over occur? Prophase I
What are the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes called? telomeres
Trisomy or monosomy conditions of a fetus happen as a result of _____________________ during Meiosis I or Meiosis II, where the chromosomes or sister chromatids do not separate properly nondisjunction
What is the process by which an unspecialized cell develops into a specialized cell with a defined structure and function? cellular differentiation
What are the two types of stem cells? Adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells
Created by: lburris
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