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AP Psych

Chapter 16- Social Psychology

Attribution Theory Suggests how we explain someone's behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error For negative events we attribute others' behavior to their disposition, but our behavior to the situation
Foot-in-the-door Involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them p by first having that person agree to a modest request.
Door-in-the-face Involves first making an extremely large request that the respondent will obviously turn down followed by making a second, more reasonable request.
Low Ball Involves first gaining closure and commitment you want the person to accept and then changing to make it more appealing for you.
Ingratiation Involves getting someone to like you in order to obtain compliance with a request.
Value A principle, standard , or quality considered worth while or desirable.
Attitude A belief or feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to something.
Cognitive dissonance Occurs when a person holds two or more attitudes that contradict one another
Role playing Activity in which a person imitates, consciously or unconsciously, a role uncharacteristic of himself.
Peripheral route to persuasion Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speaker's attractiveness.
Central route to persuasion Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
Social norms An unwritten but understood rule for accepted and expected behavior.
Conformity adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Solomon Asch's conformity study Most people will give into mob mentality if there are 3 or more people
Normative social influence Resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disappointment.
Informative social influence Resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality.
Obedience Occurs when you change your opinions, judgements, or actions because someone in a position of authority told you to do so.
Stanley Milgram's Study of Obedience (shock) 2/3 of all participants would shock a learner to death if told to do so
Passionate love An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
Companionate love The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
Equity A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give
Self-disclosure Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
Stereotype A widely held but fixed and over simplified belief of a particular type of person or thing.
Prejudice Preconceived attitude that is not based on reason or actual experience to categories of people based on prejudice.
Discrimination An action that denies social participation or human rights to categories of people based on prejudice.
Ingroup bias Refers to favoring members of one's in group over out group members.
Scapegoat theory Singling out any party for unmerited negative treatment or blame
Just-world phenomenon Idea that all of a person's noble actions will be rewarded and all of the evil actions punished.
Agression Hostile or violent behavior or attitudes toward another
Genetic influences Animals have been bred aggression or study.
Neural influences The limbic system (amygdala) and frontal lobe are intimately involved withe aggression.
Biochemical influences Testosterone has been shown to increase aggreassion
Psychological influences( Frustration-aggression hypothesis) Principle in which frustration (caused by the blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal) creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Altruism An unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Social exchange theory Our aim is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
Social responsibility norm Tells us to help people when they need us even though they may not repay us.
Reciprocity norm Expectation that we should return help and not harm those who have helped us.
Bystander effect Phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress.
Attraction Proximity, similarity, physical attraction, mere exposure effect.
Proximity Powerful predictor of friendship, repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction.
Similarity Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction.
Physical attraction PEOPLE ARE PRETTY!!!!!!!!
Mere exposure effect People tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them.
Social facilitation When an individuals skill performance gets better in the presence of others.
Social inhibition When an individual's skill performance gets worse in the presence of others.
Social loafing The reduced effort of each member in a group. The larger the group, the less effort each person puts forth.
Groupthink When desire for harmony in decision-making overrides a realistic solution to the problem.
Deindividuation The loss of self awareness and self restraint in group situations. Brings about feelings of excitement and anonymity. "Mob Mentality"
Group Polarization The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
Conflict A serious disagreement or argument typically a protracted one.
Ingroup A social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member.
Outgroup A social group to whig an individual does not identify.
Mirror-image perceptions Behavior in which one person so pies another person usually while in social interaction with them.
Superordinate goals Where two or more people or groups must be involved to achieve a specific goal.
Social trap A situation in which a group of people act to abstain short term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the group as a whole.
Created by: 007lwm
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