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UltimateAPpart2

Ultimate AP Biology vocab

TermDefinition
cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
channel protein A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel.
character A heritable feature that varies among individuals.
character displacement Tendency of characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations than allopatric populations.
chemiosmosis Process by which a Hydrogen pump pumps protons into the thylakoid membrane. H+ passively flows through the ATP synthase which leads to the creation of ATP.
chemiosmosis When energy is stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane which is used to drive cellular work.
chemoautotrophs Organisms that use hydrogen sulfide or other chemicals as energy source instead of light.
chiasmata X-shaped regions where crossing over occurred.
chitin Polysaccharide found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls.
chlorophyll Green pigment located within the chloroplasts.
chlorophyll a Only pigment that can participate directly in the light reactions.
chloroplasts Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
cholesterol Steroid common in cell membranes, also in many hormones.
chondrocytes Cells that secrete cartilage.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion.
chromatin The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
chromatin The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins.
chromatin The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins.
chromosome theory of inheritance According to this theory, genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes.
chromosomes A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
chromosomes Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
circadian rhythm A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists even in the absence of external cues.
circadian rhythms The 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.
citric acid cycle Completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide.
clade A taxonomic grouping that includes only a single ancestor and all of its descendants.
cladistics A phylogenetic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa.
cladogram Diagram that shows patterns of shared characteristics.
classical conditioning An arbitrary stimulus is associated with an award or punishment.
cleavage The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; specifically.
cleavage furrow The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
climate Prevailing weather conditions of an area.
cline A graded change in a trait along a geographic axis.
clone An identical genetically individual of the parent
cloning Making a genetically identical copy of DNA or of an organism.
cloning vector DNA molecules that can carry foreign DNA into a host cell and replicate there.
clumped dispersion The most common pattern of dispersion; individuals aggregated in patches.
cocci Spherical bacteria.
codominance When which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote.
codons mRNA base triplets.
coefficient of relatedness Probability that if two individuals share common parent or ancestor, a particular gene present in one will be present in other.
coenzyme If the cofactor is an organic molecule.
coevolution Reciprocal evolutionary adaptations of two interacting species.
cofactor Non-protein helpers that may be bound tightly to the enzyme as a permanent resident, or may bind loosely and reversibly along with the substrate.
cognition The ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors.
cognitive maps An internal representation of the spatial relationships between objects in an animal's surroundings.
cohesion Water molecules sticking to each other.
cohort A group of individuals of the same age.
coleoptile Covers and protects the shoot as it grows upward.
collagenous fibers Fibers made of collagen.
colonies Collections of autonomously replicating cells.
columnar epithelium Cells shaped like bricks standing on end.
commensalism Interaction between species that benefits one but neither helps or harms the other. (+/0)
communication Signals among animals that include sounds, odors, visual displays, and touches that produce responses.
community All species that inhabit an area.
comparative embryology Embryos of vertebrates share many anatomical homologies.
competitive exclusion. Strong competition can lead to local elimination of one of the species
Competitive Exclusion Principle Two species competing for same limiting resource cannot coexist in one place; one species will have an advantage that will eventually lead to competitive exclusion
competitive inhibitors Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.
complement system A group of about 30 blood proteins that may amplify the inflammatory response, enhance phagocytosis, or directly lyse extracellular pathogens.
complementary DNA (cDNA) DNA molecule made in vitro using mRNA as a template and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
complete dominance When the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.
complete flower A flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.
concentration gradient A difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance.
conformer An animal that allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes.
conjugation In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
connective tissue Tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues.
conservation biology Integrates ecology, physiology, molecular biology, genetics and evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity.
contractile vacuoles A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
control elements segments of noncoding DNA in eukaryotic genes that help regulate transcription by binding to certain proteins.
cooperativity It amplifies the response of enzymes to substrates.
corpus callosum Nerves that enable communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
cotransport The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
countercurrent heat exchanger In ectotherms, a circulatory adaptation that is an arrangement of blood vessels that warm or cool the blood.
crenation This happens when a cell shrinks and shrivels; can result in cell death if severe.
cristae Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
critical load The amount of added nutrient that can be absorbed by plants without damaging ecosystem.
crossing over Nonsister chromatids exchanging DNA segments.
crossing over Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
cryptic coloration Camouflage; makes an organism difficult to spot.
cubiodal epithelium Dice-shaped cells.
culture A system of information transfer through influential social learning or teaching.
cyclic AMP (cAMP) A compound formed from ATP that acts as a second messenger.
cyclic photophosphorolation Only Photosystem I works. ATP is made, no oxygen is produced, no water is split, no NADPH is made.
cystic fibrosis A genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems.
cytogenetic maps A chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features distinguishable in a microscope.
cytokines Chemicals released by the immune system communicate with the brain.
cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.
cytokinins A class of plant hormones that retard aging and act in concert with auxin to stimulate cell division, influence the pathway of differentiation, and control apical dominance.
cytolysis This happens when a cell swells until pressure bursts it, resulting in cell death.
cytoplasm The region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
cytoplasmic determinants Maternal substances in egg that influence the course of early development.
cytoplasmic streaming The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.
cytosol The soluble portion of the cytoplasm, which includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not the organelles covered with membranes.
cytotoxic T cells or "killer T cells" T cells that directly attack infecting organisms; these cells attack antigen labeled foreign or host tissue.
daily torpor in small mammals and birds, daily lowering of metabolism that allows them to survive on stored energy
day-neutral plant A plant whose flowering is not affected by photoperiod.
de-etiolation The changes a plant shoot undergoes in response to sunlight; also known informally as greening.
decent with modification Darwin's way of referring to evolution.
dehydration synthesis Condensation reaction where molecules are connected by loss of a water molecule.
deletion A change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed.
demographic transition Movement from a high birth rate, high death rate to a low birth rate, low death rate.
demography Study of vital statistics of a population and how they change over time.
denaturation I n proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.
dendrites Highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons.
density dependent inhibition The arrest of cell division that occurs when cells grown in a laboratory dish touch one another.
density-dependent regulation When birth or death rates do change with population density.
density-independent regulation When birth or death rates do not change with population density.
depolarization The process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive.
determination The point during development at which a cell becomes committed to a particular fate due to cytoplasmic effects or to induction by neighboring cells.
detritivores Obtain energy from detritus.
detritus Nonliving organic maters such as remains of dead organisms, feces, fallen leaves, dead wood.
diacylglycerol (DAG) A second messenger produced by the cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane.
dialysis The diffusion of small solutes through a selectively permeable membrane.
differential gene expression The expression of different sets of genes by cells with the same genome.
diffusion When a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Due to entropy.
digestion To break apart.
dihybrids Parents that are heterozygous for two characters. Parents that are heterozygous for two characters.
dioecious If staminate and carpellate flowers are on different plants.
diploid cell Has two sets of chromosomes.
directional selection Shift toward a favorable variation.
discrete characteristics Characteristics that are classified on an either-or basis, determined by a single gene locus.
dispersal Movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or their area of origin.
dispersion Pattern of spacing among individuals.
disruptive selection Shift toward the extremes.
disturbance An event, such as storm, fire, flood, drought, overgrazing or human activity, that changes a community and alters resource availability.
disulphide bridges Reinforce tertiary structure.
DNA ligase A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.
DNA methylation The addition of methyl groups to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.
DNA polymerase An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
DNA sequencing Determining the exact order of the base pairs in a segment of DNA.
domains Discrete structural and functional regions of proteins.
dominant allele An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
dominant species Species that are the most abundant or have the most biomass.
dopamine Important neurotransmitter in the CNS that acts on the sympathetic nervous system.
dormancy A condition typified by extremely low metabolic rate and a suspension of growth and development.
double fertilization A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.
Downs Syndrome A congenital disorder caused by having an extra Chromosome 21.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
dynamic stability hypothesis Long food chains are less stable than short chains.
ecological footprint Land and water area appropriated by each nation as a resource to consume or to absorb the waste it generates.
ecological niche Sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources.
ecological succession Gradual recolonization of a disturbed area; species replaced by other species which are replaced by other species.
ecology . Study of interactions between organisms and the environment
ecosystem Consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact.
ectoparasites Parasites that feed on external surface of host.
edocrine glands Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.
effector cells Muscle cells or gland cells that carry out the body's response to stimuli.
elastic fibers Fibers made of elastin.
electrochemical gradient The combination of forces that acts on membrane potential.
electronegativity Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
electroporation A technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing the cells. The pulse creates temporary holes in the cells' plasma membrane, through which DNA can enter.
elicitors A molecule that induces a broad type of host defense response
emigration Movement out of population. Decreases population size.
enantiomers Structures that are like a mirror-image.
endangered species Species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
endergonic reaction Reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.
endocrine signaling Specialized cells release hormone molecules into vessels of the circulatory system, by which they travel to target cells in other parts of the body.
endocrine system The system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity.
endocytosis Occurs when a cell takes in biological molecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
endomembrane system A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
endoparasites Parasites that live within the body of their host.
endorphins Natural analgesics that decrease pain perception.
endosperm In angiosperms, a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. Provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
endospore A thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions.
endosymbiotic theory Ancestors of mitochondria and plastids was prokaryotes that came to live in a host cell.
endothermic Animals that are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism.
energy coupling The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.
energy hypothesis Length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer.
enhancer A DNA segment containing multiple control elements that can recognize certain transcription factors that stimulate the transcription of nearby genes.
enteric division One of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system; consists of networks of neurons in the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder.
entropy A measure of disorder or randomness.
enzymatic activity A protein built into the membrane with active site exposed.
enzyme A catalytic protein.
enzyme-substrate complex When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:
epigenetic inheritance Inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence.
epinephrine Neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress. Also known as adrenaline.
episome A genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome.
epithelial tissue Tissue that covers outside of the body and lines organs and cavities.
epitope Small, accessible portion of an antigen that can be recognized.
equatorial-polar gradients Species diversity highest at equator, decreases toward poles.
Erwin Chargaff Discovered that DNA composition varies, but the amount of adenine is always the same as thymine and the amount of cytosine is always the same as guanine.
estivation Summer torpor. Enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies.
ethology The scientific study of how animals behave, particularly in natural environments.
ethylene The only gaseous plant hormone. Among its many effects are response to mechanical stress, programmed cell death, leaf abscission, and fruit ripening.
Created by: ssteuter