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10 1.1 Genetics

Ch 1.1 Genetics

TermDefinition
Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring from its parents or ancestor.
Cell A cell is the smallest part of a living thing that can carry out all the processes of life - all life originates from previous life.
Cell membrane A thin, flexible barrier around a cell that separates it from its surroundings; regulates what entrs and leaves the cell, thus giving the cell control over its processes.
Cytoplasm it contains the cell contents and the organelles and is gel-like.
Nucleus the centre of the cell that contains the genetic material of cell and separated from the remainder of the cell by a nuclear membrane
Prokaryotic cell this type of cell is more primitive and does not contain a nucleus so its genetic material floats freely in the cytoplasm eg bacteria
Eukaryotic cell composes all complex living things, it must contain a nucleus (with the genetic material of the cell segmented from the remainder of the cell by a nuclear membrane)
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid - the double stranded helix that forms the basis of genes and chromosomes - determines the characteristics of organisms. The genetic blue-print.
Nucleotides the basic units of DNA - contains a phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and one of four Nitrogen rich bases.
Phosphate groups bind with the deoxyribose sugars to form the spine of the DNA moleclule
Deoxyribose sugar binds with one of the four Nitrogen rich bases (side-ways) and to the phosphate groups (along the double helix)
Nitrogen rich bases adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C)
Complementary base pairing adenine (A) can only bond with thymine (T), and guanine (G) can only bond with cytosine (C). A-T and G-C (Always Teach Good Classes)
Chromosomes long thread-like structures composed of DNA and found only in the nucleus of the cell - 23 pairs are found in most cells of the body - the only exceptions are egg cells, sperm and red blood cells.
Genes sections of a chromosome that code for particular proteins that lead to specific characteristics eg blue eyes or dark hair. It usually takes multiple genes to code for any given characteristic - so this is quite complex.
Replication the process that copies both strands of exposed DNA resulting in two identical strands.
Created by: camwust